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Many tasks in software engineering can be characterized as source to source transformations. Design recovery, software restructuring, forward engineering, language translation, platform migration and code reuse can all be understood as transformations from one source text to another. TXL, the Tree Transformation Language, is a programming language and rapid(More)
—Community-based question answering services accumulate large volumes of knowledge through the voluntary services of people across the globe. Stack Overflow is an example of such a service that targets developers and software engineers. In general, questions in Stack Overflow are answered in a very short time. However, we found that the number of unanswered(More)
Open-source software development projects are almost always collaborative and distributed. Despite the difficulties imposed by distance, these projects have managed to produce large, complex, and successful systems. However, there is still little known about how open-source teams manage their collaboration. In this paper we look at one aspect of this issue:(More)
This paper introduces the Abstract User Interface (AUI) model and notation for specifying abstract interaction in interactive software systems with graphical, direct manipulation user interfaces. The AUI model is aimed at improving the plasticity of an interactive system. An interactive system is considered to be plastic when it is easily adaptable to(More)
Syntactic analysis forms a foundation of many source analysis and reverse engineering tools. However, a single standard grammar is not always appropriate for all source analysis and manipulation tasks. Small custom modifications to the grammar can make the programs used to implement these tasks simpler, clearer and more efficient. This leads to a new(More)
— Clone detection techniques essentially cluster textually, syntactically and/or semantically similar code fragments in or across software systems. For large datasets, similarity identification is costly both in terms of time and memory, and especially so when detecting near-miss clones where lines could be modified, added and/or deleted in the copied(More)
Code clone genealogies show how clone groups evolve with the evolution of the associated software system, and thus could provide important insights on the maintenance implications of clones. In this paper, we provide an in-depth empirical study for evaluating clone genealogies in evolving open source systems at the release level. We develop a clone(More)