Kevin A. Pokornowski

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UNLABELLED Patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who develop antiviral resistance lose benefits of therapy and may be predisposed to further resistance. Entecavir (ETV) resistance (ETVr) results from HBV reverse transcriptase substitutions at positions T184, S202, or M250, which emerge in the presence of lamivudine (LVD) resistance(More)
Entecavir (ETV) exhibits potent antiviral activity in patients chronically infected with wild-type or lamivudine (3TC)-resistant (3TC(r)) hepatitis B virus (HBV). Among the patients treated in phase II ETV clinical trials, two patients for whom previous therapies had failed exhibited virologic breakthrough while on ETV. Isolates from these patients(More)
UNLABELLED Virologic resistance emerging during entecavir (ETV) therapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) requires three substitutions in the viral reverse transcriptase (RT), signifying a high barrier to resistance. Two of these substitutions are associated with lamivudine resistance (LVDr) in the tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate (YMDD) motif (rtM204V and(More)
Entecavir (ETV) is a deoxyguanosine analog approved for use for the treatment of chronic infection with wild-type and lamivudine-resistant (LVDr) hepatitis B virus (HBV). In LVD-refractory patients, 1.0 mg ETV suppressed HBV DNA levels to below the level of detection by PCR (<300 copies/ml) in 21% and 34% of patients by Weeks 48 and 96, respectively. Prior(More)
Comprehensive monitoring of genotypic and phenotypic antiviral resistance was performed on 673 entecavir (ETV)-treated nucleoside naïve hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients. ETV reduced HBV DNA levels to undetectable by PCR (<300 copies/mL, <57 IU/mL) in 91% of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and -negative patients by Week 96. Thirteen percent (n = 88)(More)
Small molecule inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are being developed to complement or replace treatments with pegylated interferons and ribavirin, which have poor response rates and significant side effects. Resistance to these inhibitors emerges rapidly in the clinic, suggesting that successful therapy will involve combination therapy with multiple(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The efficacy of anti-viral therapy for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) is lost upon the emergence of resistant virus. Using >500 patient HBV isolates from several entecavir clinical trials, we show that phenotypic susceptibility correlates with genotypic resistance and patient virologic responses. METHODS The full-length HBV or reverse(More)
The method of substrate phage display was used to select a preferred substrate from three monovalent display libraries using the HSV-1 protease. The display libraries consisted of four random amino acids, six random amino acids, and a biased library containing four amino acids from the P side of the HSV-1 maturation site followed by four random amino acids.(More)
Amino acid substitutions that confer reduced susceptibility to antivirals arise spontaneously through error-prone viral polymerases and are selected as a result of antiviral therapy. Resistance substitutions first emerge in a fraction of the circulating virus population, below the limit of detection by nucleotide sequencing of either the population or(More)
Utilizing a strategy involving domain exchange between retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta (RAR alpha and RAR beta) and monitoring the transcriptional activity of the resulting chimeric receptors with receptor-selective retinoids, we identified a 70-aa region within the N-terminal portion of the RAR alpha and -beta domain E which is important for an RAR(More)