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The effluent of 17 sewage treatment works (STW) across Norway, Sweden, Finland, The Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, France and Switzerland was studied for the presence of estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), ethinylestradiol (EE2) and nonylphenol (NP). Treatment processes included primary and chemical treatment only, submerged aerated filter, oxidation ditch,(More)
Atlantic salmon parr were reared for 4 months on experimental diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 5, 25, 125, or 250 mg Cd x kg(-1) feed to establish a threshold concentration for dietary cadmium exposure by assessing early adaptive cellular responses. At the end of the experiment, the lowest dietary Cd concentration that caused significant(More)
2008. Contaminants in marine ecosystems: developing an integrated indicator framework using biological-effect techniques. Input of contaminants is an important pressure in most urbanized coastal areas, but establishing appropriate indicators of their presence and effects has been challenging. Such indicators would, at the very least, have to integrate(More)
The use of biological effects tools offer enormous potential to meet the challenges outlined by the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) whereby Member States are required to develop a robust set of tools for defining 11 qualitative descriptors of Good Environmental Status (GES), such as demonstrating that "Concentrations of(More)
  • Ketil Hylland
  • 2006
Low levels of oil and hence polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are naturally present in the marine environment, although levels have increased significantly following human extraction and use of oil and gas. Other major anthropogenic sources of PAHs include smelters, the use of fossil fuels in general, and various methods of waste disposal, especially(More)
1. The cytotoxic effects of various heavy metals were assayed by trypan blue exclusion in vitro in human peripheral immune cells separated to high purity. T and B lymphocytes and monocytes were equally sensitive to metals. The individual metals could be ranked in the following decreasing order of cytotoxic potency, Hg approximately Ag > Cd approximately Cu(More)
One isoform of the low-molecular-weight metal-binding protein metallothionein (MT) has been isolated from the liver of Atlantic cod by size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. Cod MT contained 33% cysteine, no aromatic amino acids or arginine. As is the case for other piscine MTs, the N-terminus of cod MT lacked the asparagine in position 4 which is(More)
An ELISA for cod vitellogenin (VTG) has been set up using cod lipovitellin for plate coating and standardisation. The assay has been applied to plasma samples collected from male and female cod caught in three distinct areas around the UK, three areas off the Norwegian coast and also to cod reared initially at an aquaculture site and subsequently maintained(More)
A short-term low level exposure experiment was conducted on rats in order to determine urinary and faecal excretion, accumulation, and biological responses to methylmercury from fish products. Male Wistar rats were fed fish-meal diets containing methylmercury contaminated fish (1.45 or 2.61 mgHg/kg as methylmercury), uncontaminated fish supplemented with(More)
We studied cellular energy allocation (CEA) in three Arctic benthic species (Gammarus setosus (Amphipoda), Onisimus litoralis (Amphipoda), and Liocyma fluctuosa (Bivalvia)) exposed to oil-related compounds. The CEA biomarker measures the energy budget of organisms by biochemically assessing changes in energy available (carbohydrates, protein and lipid(More)