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BACKGROUND During vertebrate head development, neural crest cells migrate from hindbrain segments to specific branchial arches, where they differentiate into distinct patterns of skeletal structures. The rostrocaudal identity of branchial neural crest cells appears to be specified prior to migration, so it is important that they are targeted to the correct(More)
Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has cancer chemopreventive properties in preclinical models. It has been shown to downregulate the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) in rodents. The purpose of the study was to assess its safety, pharmacokinetics, and effects on circulating levels of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) after(More)
Studies with live cells demonstrate that agonist and antagonist rapidly (within minutes) modulate the subnuclear dynamics of estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1). A functional cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-tagged lac repressor-ER chimera (CFP-LacER) was used in live cells to discretely immobilize ER on stably integrated(More)
Here we report the use of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to examine the intranuclear dynamics of fluorescent oestrogen receptor-alpha (ER). After bleaching, unliganded ER exhibits high mobility (recovery t1/2 < 1 s). Agonist (oestradiol; E2) or partial antagonist (4-hydroxytamoxifen) slows ER recovery (t1/2 approximately 5-6 s), whereas(More)
Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor (AR). We show in transiently transfected HeLa cells that an AR containing 48 glutamines (ARQ48) accumulates in a hormone-dependent manner in both cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregates. Electron microscopy reveals both types of aggregates(More)
Development of paired appendages at appropriate levels along the primary body axis is a hallmark of the body plan of jawed vertebrates. Hox genes are good candidates for encoding position in lateral plate mesoderm along the body axis and thus for determining where limbs are formed. Local application of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) to the anterior(More)
The red grape constituent resveratrol possesses cancer chemopreventive properties in rodents. The hypothesis was tested that, in healthy humans, p.o. administration of resveratrol is safe and results in measurable plasma levels of resveratrol. A phase I study of oral resveratrol (single doses of 0.5, 1, 2.5, or 5 g) was conducted in 10 healthy volunteers(More)
The development of the feather buds during avian embryogenesis is a classic example of a spacing pattern. The regular arrangement of feather buds is achieved by a process of lateral inhibition whereby one developing feather bud prevents the formation of similar buds in the immediate vicinity. Lateral inhibition during feather formation implicates a role of(More)
Although AKT1 (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 1) kinase is a central member of possibly the most frequently activated proliferation and survival pathway in cancer, mutation of AKT1 has not been widely reported. Here we report the identification of a somatic mutation in human breast, colorectal and ovarian cancers that results in a glutamic(More)