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Tbx-2, Tbx-3, Tbx-4 and Tbx-5 chick genes have been isolated and, like the mouse homologues, are expressed in the limb regions. Tbx-2 and Tbx-3 are expressed in anterior and posterior domains in wings and legs, as well as throughout the flank. Of particular interest, however, are Tbx-5, which is expressed in wing and flank but not leg, and Tbx-4, which is(More)
Development of paired appendages at appropriate levels along the primary body axis is a hallmark of the body plan of jawed vertebrates. Hox genes are good candidates for encoding position in lateral plate mesoderm along the body axis and thus for determining where limbs are formed. Local application of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) to the anterior(More)
BACKGROUND Skeletal muscle of trunk, limbs and tongue develops from a small population of cells that originates from somites. Although promoters and inhibitors of muscle differentiation have been isolated, nothing is known about how the amplification of the muscle precursor pool is regulated; this amplification provides muscle mass during development.(More)
Bones of the postcranial skeleton of higher vertebrates originate from either somitic mesoderm or somatopleural layer of the lateral plate mesoderm. Controversy surrounds the origin of the scapula, a major component of the shoulder girdle, with both somitic and lateral plate origins being proposed. Abnormal scapular development has been described in the(More)
Follistatin is known to antagonise the function of several members of the TGF-beta family of secreted signalling factors, including Myostatin, the most powerful inhibitor of muscle growth characterised to date. In this study, we compare the expression of Myostatin and Follistatin during chick development and show that they are expressed in the vicinity or(More)
The lack of myostatin promotes growth of skeletal muscle, and blockade of its activity has been proposed as a treatment for various muscle-wasting disorders. Here, we have examined two independent mouse lines that harbor mutations in the myostatin gene, constitutive null (Mstn(-/-)) and compact (Berlin High Line, BEH(c/c)). We report that, despite a larger(More)
Satellite cells represent the stem cell population of adult skeletal muscle. The molecular mechanisms that control the proliferation of satellite cells are not well understood. In this study, we show that in response to injury, myofibres activate Wnt ligand transcription and activate a reporter cell line that is sensitive to the canonical Wnt-signalling(More)
Embryonic muscle growth requires a fine balance between proliferation and differentiation. In this study we have investigated how this balance is achieved during chick development. Removal of ectoderm from trunk somites results in the down-regulation of Pax-3 expression and cell division of myogenic precursors is halted. This initially leads to an(More)
The Eph-related receptor tyrosine kinase gene, Cek-8, is expressed in mesenchyme at the tip of chick limb buds, with high levels of transcripts posteriorly and apically but fading out anteriorly. Expression of Cek-8 in distal mesenchyme is regulated by apical ridge- and FGF-polarising signals and retinoic acid, and is uniform across the anteroposterior axis(More)