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BACKGROUND During vertebrate head development, neural crest cells migrate from hindbrain segments to specific branchial arches, where they differentiate into distinct patterns of skeletal structures. The rostrocaudal identity of branchial neural crest cells appears to be specified prior to migration, so it is important that they are targeted to the correct(More)
Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor (AR). We show in transiently transfected HeLa cells that an AR containing 48 glutamines (ARQ48) accumulates in a hormone-dependent manner in both cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregates. Electron microscopy reveals both types of aggregates(More)
Studies with live cells demonstrate that agonist and antagonist rapidly (within minutes) modulate the subnuclear dynamics of estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1). A functional cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-tagged lac repressor-ER chimera (CFP-LacER) was used in live cells to discretely immobilize ER on stably integrated(More)
Although AKT1 (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 1) kinase is a central member of possibly the most frequently activated proliferation and survival pathway in cancer, mutation of AKT1 has not been widely reported. Here we report the identification of a somatic mutation in human breast, colorectal and ovarian cancers that results in a glutamic(More)
The development of the feather buds during avian embryogenesis is a classic example of a spacing pattern. The regular arrangement of feather buds is achieved by a process of lateral inhibition whereby one developing feather bud prevents the formation of similar buds in the immediate vicinity. Lateral inhibition during feather formation implicates a role of(More)
Responses to extracellular nucleotides (e.g., ATP, ADP, etc.) have been demonstrated in a number of embryonic cell types suggesting they may be important signalling molecules during embryonic development. Here the authors describe for the first time the expression of a G-protein-coupled receptor for extracellular ATP, chick P2Y1 (cP2Y1), during embryonic(More)
The forelimbs of higher vertebrates are composed of two portions: the appendicular region (stylopod, zeugopod and autopod) and the less prominent proximal girdle elements (scapula and clavicle) that brace the limb to the main trunk axis. We show that the formation of the muscles of the proximal limb occurs through two distinct mechanisms. The more(More)
Development of paired appendages at appropriate levels along the primary body axis is a hallmark of the body plan of jawed vertebrates. Hox genes are good candidates for encoding position in lateral plate mesoderm along the body axis and thus for determining where limbs are formed. Local application of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) to the anterior(More)
Controversy has surrounded the process of resegmentation of cervico-occipital somites. We have reinvestigated this topic by grafting single somites of quail embryos homotopically into chick embryos. Somites one to five contribute to the skull. Somites one and two contribute to the parasphenoid, which develops by direct ossification in a non-segmental(More)
Signalling via the receptor Notch, delivered by the ligands Delta and Serrate, plays a key role in many cell fate decisions in both Drosophila and vertebrate development (for review seeArtavanis-Tsakonas, S., Matsuno, K. and Fortini, M.E., 1995. Notch signalling. Science 268, 225-232; Lewis, J., 1996. Neurogenic genes and vertebrate neurogenesis. Curr.(More)