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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in promoting mitochondrial cytochrome c release and induction of apoptosis. ROS induce dissociation of cytochrome c from cardiolipin on the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM), and cytochrome c may then be released via mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-dependent or MPT-independent mechanisms. We have(More)
Fluorescent labels are commonly used to investigate the mechanisms of cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of cell-penetrating peptides. However, labels such as fluorescein and rhodamine are relatively large and very lipophilic and may significantly alter physicochemical properties of small peptides. To minimize the impact of the fluorescent probe(More)
A large body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). A number of antioxidants have been effective in animal models of PD. We have developed a family of mitochondria-targeted peptides that can protect against mitochondrial swelling and apoptosis (SS peptides). In(More)
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial oxidative damage have been implicated in aging and many common diseases. Mitochondria are a primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell, and are particularly susceptible to oxidative damage. Oxidative damage to mitochondria results in mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), mitochondrial(More)
The role of chromosomally derived micF RNA as a repressor of outer membrane protein OmpF of Escherichia coli was examined for various growth conditions. Levels of micF RNA as determined by Northern analyses are found to increase in response to cell growth at high temperature, in high osmolarity or in the presence of ethanol. After a switch to higher growth(More)
Apoptotic cell death is a defined pathway for islet cell demise, and mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to islet cell apoptosis. The hypothesis that the novel peptide D-Arg-2', 6'-dimethyltyrosine-Lys-Phe-NH2 (SS-31), previously shown to target inner mitochondrial membrane and prevent oxidative damage of neuronal cells and other cell types, optimizes(More)
Oligopeptides are generally thought to have poor permeability across biological membranes. Recent studies, however, suggest significant distribution of [Dmt1]DALDA (Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt is 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a 3+ net charge opioid peptide, to the brain and spinal cord after subcutaneous administration. Peptide transporters (PEPT1 and PEPT2) play(More)
OBJECTIVES The expression of connexin-43 was examined in human leiomyomas and in autologous myometrium. STUDY DESIGN Indirect immunofluorescence was used to detect connexin-43 gap junctions in myometrial and leiomyoma tissues and in primary cultures. Immunoblot and Northern analyses were used to examine the levels of connexin-43 protein and cx43 messenger(More)
The mechanism by which progestin represses the expression of the human connexin43 (cx43) gene was analyzed in primary cultures of human myometrial cells, and for comparison, in primary cultures of uterine leiomyoma cells. Within 24 h, the levels of connexin43 (Cx43) protein in primary cells treated with progestin were reduced to about 50% of that in(More)
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