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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in promoting mitochondrial cytochrome c release and induction of apoptosis. ROS induce dissociation of cytochrome c from cardiolipin on the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM), and cytochrome c may then be released via mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-dependent or MPT-independent mechanisms. We have(More)
A large body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). A number of antioxidants have been effective in animal models of PD. We have developed a family of mitochondria-targeted peptides that can protect against mitochondrial swelling and apoptosis (SS peptides). In(More)
Fluorescent labels are commonly used to investigate the mechanisms of cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of cell-penetrating peptides. However, labels such as fluorescein and rhodamine are relatively large and very lipophilic and may significantly alter physicochemical properties of small peptides. To minimize the impact of the fluorescent probe(More)
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial oxidative damage have been implicated in aging and many common diseases. Mitochondria are a primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell, and are particularly susceptible to oxidative damage. Oxidative damage to mitochondria results in mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), mitochondrial(More)
Apoptotic cell death is a defined pathway for islet cell demise, and mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to islet cell apoptosis. The hypothesis that the novel peptide D-Arg-2', 6'-dimethyltyrosine-Lys-Phe-NH2 (SS-31), previously shown to target inner mitochondrial membrane and prevent oxidative damage of neuronal cells and other cell types, optimizes(More)
Oligopeptides are generally thought to have poor permeability across biological membranes. Recent studies, however, suggest significant distribution of [Dmt1]DALDA (Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt is 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a 3+ net charge opioid peptide, to the brain and spinal cord after subcutaneous administration. Peptide transporters (PEPT1 and PEPT2) play(More)
The contribution of peritoneal cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced elevation of serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels and mortality has been studied. Peritoneal lavage performed before LPS administration reduced serum cytokine levels by approximately 50% and mortality from 50 to 100%. The effect of peritoneal lavage is due to the removal of peritoneal cells as(More)
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