Kesavan Esuvaranathan

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Intravesical immunotherapy for carcinoma in situ of the bladder is arguably the most effective form of tumour immunotherapy described to date. Following repeated instillations of BCG organisms into the bladder, large quantities of cytokines are detected in patients' urine. This study concerns the production of IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10,(More)
BACKGROUND Nuclear p53 and retinoblastoma protein (pRb) were reported to be poor prognostic indicators for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. The authors sought to determine the prognostic value of nuclear p53 and pRb in superficial bladder transitional cell carcinoma patients who were treated with intravesical bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or BCG(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether mechanical percussion, diuresis, and inversion (PDI) therapy after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) improves the clearance rates of lower pole renal stones. METHODS In this single-blind study, 108 patients who underwent SWL treatment for lower pole renal stones with a total diameter of 2 cm or less were prospectively randomized(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether BCG therapy could upregulate interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in human transitional cell carcinomas (TCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS Immunohistochemistry of tumor biopsies and urinary cytospins and ELISA studies of urine from bladder cancer patients and TCC cell-line supernatants, before and after exposure to BCG, were performed.(More)
This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of periprostatic nerve block (PPNB) and intrarectal local anesthestic (IRLA) gel in alleviating pain during prostate biopsy. Electronic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and EMBASE were searched to identify all randomized controlled trials comparing PPNB with periprostatic(More)
Instillation of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) into the bladder is the standard treatment for superficial bladder cancer. It leads to a local inflammatory response due to the release of cytokines and influx of immune cells to the tumor site. Although the presence of an intact immune system is an essential criterion for successful therapy, attachment of the(More)
We report the results of 7 patients with calculi in a horseshoe kidney treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL, 9 renal units) and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (3 renal units) during a 3-year period. In the ESWL only group complete stone clearance was achieved in only 3 patients (50%) after an average of 3 sessions of therapy. On the other(More)
Cystoscopy is considered the gold standard for the clinical diagnosis of human bladder cancer (BC). As cystoscopy is expensive and invasive, it may compromise patients' compliance and account for the failure in detecting recurrent BC in some patients. In this paper, we investigated the role of urinary metabonomics in the diagnosis of human BC. Gas(More)
Tubulocystic carcinoma of the kidney is a recently reported rare entity, with very few reports in the literature. It has always been described as a low-grade malignancy with favorable prognosis. We report the case of 33-year-old man who presented with back pain. Investigations revealed multiple bony metastases and a large, solid, cystic left renal tumor.(More)
BACKGROUND The natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) gene is associated with susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans and to bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in mice. The detoxification enzyme, human glutathione peroxidase 1 (hGPX1), is associated with recurrence of bladder cancer (BCa). OBJECTIVE To determine whether(More)