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Despite significant improvement in survival rates of patients with breast cancer, prognosis of metastatic disease is still dismal. Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are considered to play a role in metastatic progression of breast cancer; however, the exact pathologic role of CSCs is yet to be elucidated. In this report, we found that CSCs(More)
Brain metastasis of breast cancer profoundly affects the cognitive and sensory functions as well as morbidity of patients, and the 1 year survival rate among these patients remains less than 20%. However, the pathological mechanism of brain metastasis is as yet poorly understood. In this report, we found that metastatic breast tumour cells in the brain(More)
Prostate cancer is known to frequently recur in bone; however, how dormant cells switch its phenotype leading to recurrent tumor remains poorly understood. We have isolated two syngeneic cell lines (indolent and aggressive) through in vivo selection by implanting PC3mm stem-like cells into tibial bones. We found that indolent cells retained the dormant(More)
Brain is one of the major sites of metastasis in breast cancer; however, the pathological mechanism of brain metastasis is poorly understood. One of the critical rate-limiting steps of brain metastasis is the breaching of blood-brain barrier, which acts as a selective interface between the circulation and the central nervous system, and this process is(More)
The median survival time of breast cancer patients with brain metastasis is less than 6 months, and even a small metastatic lesion often causes severe neurological disabilities. Because of the location of metastatic lesions, a surgical approach is limited and most chemotherapeutic drugs are ineffective owing to the blood brain barrier (BBB). Despite this(More)
Brain metastasis is one of the chief causes of mortality in breast cancer patients, but the mechanisms that drive this process remain poorly understood. Here, we report that brain metastatic cells expressing high levels of c-Met promote the metastatic process via inflammatory cytokine upregulation and vascular reprogramming. Activated c-Met signaling(More)
In the past decade, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been isolated, characterized, and studied in a variety of cancers and they are believed to be responsible for tumor initiation and progression. Like normal stem cells, these cells retain self-renewal property and therefore, can differentiate into multiple tumor types. Despite this clinical importance, how(More)
More than 90% of cancer death is attributed to metastatic disease, and the brain is one of the major metastatic sites of melanoma, colon, renal, lung and breast cancers. Despite the recent advancement of targeted therapy for cancer, the incidence of brain metastasis is increasing. One reason is that most therapeutic drugs can't penetrate blood-brain-barrier(More)
Despite significant improvement in survival rates of patients with breast cancer, prognosis of metastatic disease is still dismal. Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are considered to play a role inmetastatic progression of breast cancer; however, the exact pathologic role of CSCs is yet to be elucidated. In this report, we found that CSCs (CD24 /CD44þ/ESAþ)(More)