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Previous European guidance for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants emphasized the concepts of statistical power but provided no explicit requirements for the provision of statistical power analyses. Similarly, whilst the need for good experimental designs was stressed, no minimum guidelines were set for replication or sample sizes.(More)
The GMO Risk Assessment and Communication of Evidence (GRACE; www.grace-fp7.eu ) project is funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme. A key objective of GRACE is to conduct 90-day animal feeding trials, animal studies with an extended time frame as well as analytical, in vitro and in silico studies on genetically modified (GM)(More)
The GRACE (GMO Risk Assessment and Communication of Evidence; www.grace-fp7.eu ) project was funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme. A key objective of GRACE was to conduct 90-day animal feeding trials, animal studies with an extended time frame as well as analytical, in vitro and in silico studies on genetically modified (GM)(More)
The data of four 90-day feeding trials and a 1-year feeding trial with the genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 in Wistar Han RCC rats performed in the frame of EU–funded project GRACE were analysed. Firstly, the data obtained from the groups having been fed the non–GM maize diets were combined to establish a historical control data set for Wistar Han RCC(More)
In this paper, we compare the traditional ANOVA approach to analysing data from 90-day toxicity studies with a more modern LMM approach, and we investigate the use of standardized effect sizes. The LMM approach is used to analyse weight or feed consumption data. When compared to the week-by-week ANOVA with multiple test results per week, this approach(More)
Histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation is a universal epigenetic mark. In mammals, there are six H3K4 methyltransferases related to yeast Set1 and fly Trithorax, including two orthologs of Set1: Setd1a and Setd1b. Here we show that mouse Setd1a is required for gastrulation, whereas Setd1b-deficient embryos survive to E11.5 but are grossly retarded. Setd1a(More)
The production of biodegradable polymers that can be used to substitute petrochemical compounds in commercial products in transgenic plants is an important challenge for plant biotechnology. Nevertheless, it is often accompanied by reduced plant fitness. To decrease the phenotypic abnormalities of the sprout and to increase polymer production, we restricted(More)
The occurrence of arthropods in amber exclusively from the Cretaceous and Cenozoic is widely regarded to be a result of the production and preservation of large amounts of tree resin beginning ca. 130 million years (Ma) ago. Abundant 230 million-year-old amber from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of northeastern Italy has previously yielded myriad(More)
Genetically modified (GM) maize expressing the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize) is the only GM crop planted commercially in the European Union (EU). Cultivation in accordance with Directive 2001/18/EC demands post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) to ensure the detection and prevention of adverse effects on the(More)
The production of plant-derived pharmaceuticals essentially requires stable concentrations of plant constituents, especially recombinant proteins; nonetheless, soil and seasonal variations might drastically interfere with this stability. In addition, variability might depend on the plant organ used for production. Therefore, we investigated the variability(More)