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Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic agent and the subspecies novicida is proposed to be a water-associated bacterium. The intracellular pathogen F. tularensis causes tularemia in humans and is known for its potential to be used as a biological threat. We analyzed the genome sequence of F. tularensis subsp. novicida U112 in silico for the presence of a(More)
Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is an intracellular pathogen of amoebae, macrophages, and epithelial cells. The pathology of Legionella infections involves alveolar cell destruction, and several proteins of L. pneumophila are known to contribute to this ability. By screening a genomic library of L. pneumophila, we found(More)
Legionella pneumophila possesses several phospholipases capable of host cell manipulation and lung damage. Recently, we discovered that the major cell-associated hemolytic phospholipase A (PlaB) shares no homology to described phospholipases and is dispensable for intracellular replication in vitro. Nevertheless, here we show that PlaB is the major(More)
Legionella pneumophila possesses a variety of secreted and cell-associated hydrolytic activities that could be involved in pathogenesis. The activities include phospholipase A, lysophospholipase A, glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase, lipase, protease, phosphatase, RNase, and p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine (p-NPPC) hydrolase. Up to now, there(More)
Legionella pneumophila (Lp) is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, an atypical pneumonia. Lp is found in freshwater habitats and replicates within different protozoa (amoebae). It is known that Lp uses amino acids as primary energy and carbon sources for replication. However, very recently it was reported that Lp is able to metabolize also(More)
Legionella oakridgensis is able to cause Legionnaires' disease, but is less virulent compared to L. pneumophila strains and very rarely associated with human disease. L. oakridgensis is the only species of the family legionellae which is able to grow on media without additional cysteine. In contrast to earlier publications, we found that L. oakridgensis is(More)
Francisella isolates from patients suffering from tularemia in Germany are generally strains of the species F. tularensis subsp. holarctica. To our knowledge, no other Francisella species are known for Germany. Recently, a new Francisella species could be isolated from a water reservoir of a cooling tower in Germany. We identified a Francisella sp. (isolate(More)
Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living ameba and an opportunistic agent of granulomatous encephalitis in humans and other mammalian species. Other free-living amebas, such as Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella, can provide a niche for intracellular survival of bacteria, including the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, Legionella pneumophila. Infection(More)
Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is an intracellular parasite of eukaryotic cells. In the environment, it colonizes amoebae. After being inhaled into the human lung, the bacteria infect and damage alveolar cells in a way that is mechanistically similar to the amoeba infection. Several L. pneumophila traits, among those(More)
Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires disease, has a biphasic life cycle with a switch from a replicative to a transmissive phenotype. During the replicative phase, the bacteria grow within host cells in Legionella-containing vacuoles. During the transmissive phenotype and the postexponential (PE) growth phase, the pathogens express(More)