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An automated closed-loop insulin delivery system based on subcutaneous glucose sensing and subcutaneous insulin delivery was evaluated in 10 subjects with type 1 diabetes (2 men, 8 women, mean [+/-SD] age 43.4 +/- 11.4 years, duration of diabetes 18.2 +/- 13.5 years). Closed-loop control was assessed over approximately 30 h and compared with open-loop(More)
Continuous glucose monitoring has the potential to improve glucose management and reduce the risk of hypoglycemia in individuals with diabetes. Accurate sensors may also allow the development of a closed-loop insulin delivery system. The purpose of this work was to determine the delay time associated with a subcutaneous glucose sensor during rapidly(More)
Modeling analysis of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide following a meal has been proposed as a means to estimate insulin sensitivity (S(i)) and beta-cell function from a single test. We compared the model-derived meal indexes with analogous indexes obtained from an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and hyperglycemic clamp (HGC) in 17 nondiabetic(More)
Closed-loop insulin delivery in individuals with diabetes can potentially lead to near-normal glucose profiles. To this end, existing subcutaneous glucose sensors and external insulin pumps can be linked with an insulin delivery algorithm to create a completely automated closed-loop system. This paper reviews current research into the development of such a(More)
BACKGROUND Estimates for delays in the interstitial fluid (ISF) glucose response to changes in blood glucose (BG) differ substantially among research groups. We review these findings along with arguments that continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices used to measure ISF delay contribute to the variability. We consider the impact of the ISF delay and(More)
Glucose sensing and insulin delivery technology can potentially be linked to form a closed-loop insulin delivery system. Ideally, such a system would establish normal physiologic glucose profiles. To this end, a model of beta-cell secretion can potentially provide insight into the preferred structure of the insulin delivery algorithm. Two secretion models(More)
A continuous closed-loop insulin delivery system using subcutaneous insulin delivery was evaluated in eight diabetic canines. Continuous glucose profiles were obtained by extrapolation of blood glucose measurements. Insulin delivery rate was calculated, using a model of beta-cell insulin secretion, and delivered with a Medtronic MiniMed subcutaneous(More)
In vivo subcutaneous glucose sensor accuracy depends on the calibration method. Sensor accuracy was assessed during standard oral glucose tolerance tests in six non-diabetic subjects each wearing six subcutaneous glucose sensors (Medtronic MiniMed). Paired blood glucose (B(G)) and sensor current readings were used for retrospective sensor calibration using(More)
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