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In rod photoreceptors of wild-type mice, background light produces an acceleration of the decay of responses to brief flashes, accompanied by a decrease in the rate-limiting time constant for response decay. In rods in which phosphodiesterase gamma (PDEgamma) lacks one of its sites of phosphorylation (T35A rods), both the waveform of response decay and the(More)
The phosphodiesterase 6 gamma (PDE6 gamma) inhibitory subunit of the rod PDE6 effector enzyme plays a central role in the turning on and off of the visual transduction cascade, since binding of PDE6 gamma to the transducin alpha subunit (T alpha) initiates the hydrolysis of the second messenger cGMP, and PDE6 gamma in association with RGS9-1 and the other(More)
PURPOSE Approximately 8% of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) cases worldwide are due to defects in rod-specific phosphodiesterase PDE6, a tetramer consisting of catalytic (PDE6alpha and PDE6beta) and two regulatory (PDE6gamma) subunits. In mice homozygous for a nonsense Pde6b(rd1) allele, absence of PDE6 activity is associated with retinal(More)
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects approximately one-third of diabetic patients and, if left untreated, progresses to proliferative DR (PDR) with associated vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, iris neovascularization, glaucoma and irreversible blindness. In vitreous samples of human patients with PDR, we found elevated levels of hypoxia inducible factor(More)
Mammalian neuroepithelial stem cells divide using a polarized form of cytokinesis, which is not well understood. The cytokinetic furrow cleaves the cell by ingressing from basal to apical, forming the midbody at the apical membrane. The midbody mediates abscission by recruiting many factors, including the Kinesin-6 family member Kif20b. In developing(More)
Cytokinesis in neural progenitors occurs with specialized constraints due to their highly polarized structure and the need for both symmetric and asymmetric divisions. They must produce proper numbers of progenitors, neurons, and glia in a precise order. Yet very few functional studies of cytokinesis have been done in the developing brain. To elucidate(More)
BACKGROUND How neurons change their cytoskeleton to adopt their complex polarized morphology is still not understood. Growing evidence suggests that proteins that help build microtubule structures during cell division are also involved in building and remodeling the complex cytoskeletons of neurons. Kif20b (previously called MPP1 or Mphosph1) is the most(More)
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