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In rod photoreceptors of wild-type mice, background light produces an acceleration of the decay of responses to brief flashes, accompanied by a decrease in the rate-limiting time constant for response decay. In rods in which phosphodiesterase gamma (PDEgamma) lacks one of its sites of phosphorylation (T35A rods), both the waveform of response decay and the(More)
The gamma subunit of rod-specific cGMP phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6gamma), an effector of the G-protein GNAT1, is a key regulator of phototransduction. The results of several in vitro biochemical reconstitution experiments conducted to examine the effects of phosphorylation of PDE6gamma on its ability to regulate the PDE6 catalytic core have been inconsistent,(More)
Quercetin is an important dietary flavonoid with in vitro antioxidant activity. However, it is found in human plasma as conjugates with glucuronic acid, sulfate or methyl groups, with no significant amounts of free quercetin present. The antioxidant properties of the conjugates found in vivo and their binding to serum albumin are unknown, but essential for(More)
The phosphodiesterase 6 gamma (PDE6 gamma) inhibitory subunit of the rod PDE6 effector enzyme plays a central role in the turning on and off of the visual transduction cascade, since binding of PDE6 gamma to the transducin alpha subunit (T alpha) initiates the hydrolysis of the second messenger cGMP, and PDE6 gamma in association with RGS9-1 and the other(More)
PURPOSE Approximately 8% of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) cases worldwide are due to defects in rod-specific phosphodiesterase PDE6, a tetramer consisting of catalytic (PDE6alpha and PDE6beta) and two regulatory (PDE6gamma) subunits. In mice homozygous for a nonsense Pde6b(rd1) allele, absence of PDE6 activity is associated with retinal(More)
There is increasing evidence that reactive oxygen species arising from several enzymatic reactions are mediators of inflammatory events. Plant preparations have the potential for scavenging such reactive oxygen species. Flavans and procyanidins are bioavailable and stable during the process of cooking. This study used conditions that mimicked digestion of(More)
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects approximately one-third of diabetic patients and, if left untreated, progresses to proliferative DR (PDR) with associated vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, iris neovascularization, glaucoma and irreversible blindness. In vitreous samples of human patients with PDR, we found elevated levels of hypoxia inducible factor(More)
Mammalian neuroepithelial stem cells divide using a polarized form of cytokinesis, which is not well understood. The cytokinetic furrow cleaves the cell by ingressing from basal to apical, forming the midbody at the apical membrane. The midbody mediates abscission by recruiting many factors, including the Kinesin-6 family member Kif20b. In developing(More)
PURPOSE We studied clinical phenotyping and TEAD1 expression in mice and humans to gain a better understanding of the primary origin in the pathogenesis of circumpapillary dysgenesis of the pigment epithelium. DESIGN Observational case series and experimental study. PARTICIPANTS Three female patients from an affected family were included for phenotypic(More)
How neurons change their cytoskeleton to adopt their complex polarized morphology is still not understood. Growing evidence suggests that proteins that help build microtubule structures during cell division are also involved in building and remodeling the complex cytoskeletons of neurons. Kif20b (previously called MPP1 or Mphosph1) is the most divergent(More)