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Marginal populations are often isolated and under extreme selection pressures resulting in anomalous genetics. Consequently, ecosystems that are geographically and ecologically marginal might have a large share of genetically atypical populations, in need of particular concern in management of these ecosystems. To test this prediction, we analysed genetic(More)
Formation of partially reproductively isolated ecotypes in the rough periwinkle, Littorina saxatilis, may be a case of incipient nonallopatric ecological speciation. To better understand the dynamics of ecotype formation, its timescale, driving forces and evolutionary consequences, we developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model incorporating(More)
The marine snail Littorina saxatilis is a common inhabitant of intertidal shores of the north Atlantic. It is amazingly polymorphic and forms reproductively isolated ecotypes in microhabitats where crabs are either present and wave action is less furious, or where waves are strong and crabs are absent. Decades of research have unveiled much of the(More)
The marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis has different ecotypes in shores only a few meters apart. This has both taxonomic and evolutionary implications. Here we report on an extreme type of within-shore dimorphism in shell characters. In the wave-exposed rocky shores in northwestern Spain, we found one form of L. saxatilis in the upper-level barnacle zone.(More)
Reproduction of attached large brown algae is known to occur only by sexual zygotes. Using microsatellites we show evolution of asexual reproduction in the bladder wrack promoting population persistence in the brackish water Baltic Sea (< 6 psu). Here a dwarf morph of Fucus vesiculosus is dominated by a single clone but clonal reproduction is also present(More)
Variation in ontogenetic development among individuals may be a major contributor to morphological variation within species. Evolution of different growth trajectories might, for example, evolve as a response to varying ecological contexts of individuals living in different environments, or by life-stage or gender differences. The intertidal periwinkle(More)
Parallel speciation occurs when selection drives repeated, independent adaptive divergence that reduces gene flow between ecotypes. Classical examples show parallel speciation originating from shared genomic variation, but this does not seem to be the case in the rough periwinkle (Littorina saxatilis) that has evolved considerable phenotypic diversity(More)
The study of speciation in recent populations is essentially a study of the evolution of reproductive isolation mechanisms between sub-groups of a species. Prezygotic isolation can be of central importance to models of speciation, either being a consequence of reinforcement of assortative mating in hybrid zones, or a pleiotropic effect of morphological or(More)
The evolution of reproductive isolation in the presence of gene flow is supported by theoretical models but rarely by data. Empirical support might be gained from studies of parallel hybrid zones between interbreeding taxa. We analysed gene flow over two hybrid zones separating ecotypes of Littorina saxatilis to test the expectation that neutral genetic(More)
Distinct ecotypes of the snail Littorina saxatilis, each linked to a specific shore microhabitat, form a mosaic-like pattern with narrow hybrid zones in between, over which gene flow is 10-30% of within-ecotype gene flow. Multi-locus comparisons cluster populations by geographic affinity independent of ecotype, while loci under selection group populations(More)