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  • K Skog
  • 2002
Epidemiological studies have shown diet to be an important factor in the global variation of human cancer rates. The presence of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) in cooked foods has attracted a great deal of interest for more than 20 years. Accurate assessment of the human exposure to HAs requires food questionnaires that address(More)
BACKGROUND Heterocyclic amines formed in cooked meat and fish are carcinogenic in animal models and form DNA adducts in human beings. We undertook a study to assess whether these substances are related to the risks of cancer in the large bowel and urinary tract. METHODS In a population-based case-control study, cases were identified from the Swedish(More)
  • W Pfau, K Skog
  • 2004
The aromatic beta-carbolines norharman and harman have been implicated in a number of human diseases including Parkinson's disease, tremor, addiction and cancer. It has been shown that these compounds are normal body constituents formed endogenously but external sources have been identified. Here, we summarise literature data on levels of norharman and(More)
Frying or grilling of meat and fish products may generate low ppb levels of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs). Many heterocyclic amines are formed via the Maillard reaction from creatine, free amino acids and monosaccharides; compounds naturally occurring in protein-rich foods of animal origin. The formation and yield of HAs are dependent on(More)
beta-Carbolines show structural resemblance to the neurotoxic N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and are metabolized to mitochondrial toxicants. Humans are continuously exposed to low levels of beta-carbolines through cooked food, coffee, alcoholic beverages and tobacco smoke. beta-Carbolines have previously been detected in higher levels in the(More)
Heterocyclic amines are possible human carcinogens and fried meat is an important source of exposure in the Western diet. To study the effect of heterocyclic amines in humans, accurate assessment of individual food consumption is essential. Parameters influencing the intake include the amount and type of meat ingested, frequency of consumption, cooking(More)
Initially, modeling was used to identify the mutagenic heterocyclic amines and their precursors. Major precursors have been shown to be single amino acids or amino acids together with creatine or creatinine. There is also evidence that Maillard reactions are involved since heating sugar and amino acids together with creatine or creatinine has been shown to(More)
Heat processing of muscle foods gives rise to the formation of mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines, often at ng/g levels. A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) technique was introduced for the analysis of nonpolar heterocyclic amines in common cooked meats, pan residues, and meat extracts after solid-phase extraction. The mutagenic(More)
  • K Skog
  • 1993
Commonly eaten meat products prepared from beef, pork, mutton and chicken show some level of mutagenic activity following normal frying. Food preparation methods have a significant influence on the formation of the mutagenic activity. The main food mutagens found in cooked meat products are heterocyclic amines. Several of them have been tested in long-term(More)