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Recent data have suggested the existence of direct signaling pathways between glial cells and neurons. Here we report the coexistence of distinct types of cells expressing astrocyte-specific markers within the hippocampus that display diverse morphological, molecular, and functional profiles. Usage of transgenic mice with GFAP promoter-controlled enhanced(More)
Astrocytes in different brain regions display variable functional properties. In the hippocampus, astrocytes predominantly express time- and voltage-independent currents, but the underlying ion channels are not well defined. This ignorance is partly attributable to abundant intercellular coupling of these cells through gap junctions, impeding quantitative(More)
Astrocytes and neurons are tightly associated and recent data suggest a direct signaling between neuronal and glial cells in vivo. To further analyze these interactions, the patch-clamp technique was combined with single-cell RT-PCR in acute hippocampal brain slices. Subsequent to functional analysis, the cytoplasm of the same cell was harvested to perform(More)
Kainate-induced seizures increase hippocampal neurogenesis. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes with radial processes in the dentate gyrus share many of the characteristics of radial glia and appear to act as precursor cells for adult dentate neurogenesis. Using the chemoconvulsant kainate and transgenic mice with human glial-fibrillary(More)
Glial cells increasingly gain importance as part of the brain's communication network. Using transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the human GFAP promoter, we tested for synaptic input to identified glial cells in the hippocampus. Electron microscopic inspection identified synapse-like structures with EGFP-positive(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the main water channel in the brain and primarily localized to astrocytes where the channels are thought to contribute to water and K(+) homeostasis. The close apposition of AQP4 and inward rectifier K(+) channels (Kir4.1) led to the hypothesis of direct functional interactions between both channels. We investigated the impact of AQP4(More)
Astrocytes express ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs), and recent evidence suggests that these receptors contribute to direct signaling between neurons and glial cells in vivo. Here, we have used functional and molecular analyses to investigate receptor properties in astrocytes of human hippocampus resected from patients with pharmacoresistant temporal(More)
In the adult dentate gyrus, radial glia-like cells represent putative stem cells generating neurons and glial cells. Here, we combined patch-clamp recordings, biocytin filling, immunohistochemistry, single-cell transcript analysis, and mouse transgenics to test for connexin expression and gap junctional coupling of radial glia-like cells and its impact on(More)
The impact of connexin30 (Cx30) on interastrocytic gap junction coupling in the normal hippocampus is matter of debate; reporter gene analyses indicated a weak expression of Cx30 in the mouse hippocampus. In contrast, mice lacking connexin43 (Cx43) in astrocytes exhibited only 50% reduction in coupling. Complete uncoupling of hippocampal astrocytes in mice(More)
BACKGROUND Besides their neuronal support functions, astrocytes are active partners in neuronal information processing. The typical territorial structure of astrocytes (the volume of neuropil occupied by a single astrocyte) is pivotal for many aspects of glia-neuron interactions. METHODS Individual astrocyte territorial volumes are measured by Golgi(More)