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We have used time-lapse digital- and video-enhanced differential interference contrast (DE-DIC, VE-DIC) microscopy to study the role of dynein in spindle and nuclear dynamics in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The real-time analysis reveals six stages in the spindle cycle. Anaphase B onset appears marked by a rapid phase of spindle elongation,(More)
Microtubule assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is initiated from sites within spindle pole bodies (SPBs) in the nuclear envelope. Microtubule plus ends are thought to be organized distal to the SPBs, while minus ends are proximal. Several hypotheses for the function of microtubule motor proteins in force generation and regulation of microtubule assembly(More)
Dynein motor isoforms have been implicated as potential kinetochore-associated motors that power chromosome-to-pole movements during mitosis. The recent identification and sequence determination of genes encoding dynein isoforms has now permitted the in vivo analysis of dynein function in mitosis. In this report we describe the identification and mutational(More)
Using green fluorescent protein probes and rapid acquisition of high-resolution fluorescence images, sister centromeres in budding yeast are found to be separated and oscillate between spindle poles before anaphase B spindle elongation. The rates of movement during these oscillations are similar to those of microtubule plus end dynamics. The degree of(More)
Localization of dynein-green fluorescent protein (GFP) to cytoplasmic microtubules allowed us to obtain one of the first views of the dynamic properties of astral microtubules in live budding yeast. Several novel aspects of microtubule function were revealed by time-lapse, three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy. Astral microtubules, about four to six in(More)
Kinetochore attachment to spindle microtubule plus-ends is necessary for accurate chromosome segregation during cell division in all eukaryotes. The centromeric DNA of each chromosome is linked to microtubule plus-ends by eight structural-protein complexes. Knowing the copy number of each of these complexes at one kinetochore-microtubule attachment site is(More)
Conditional temperature-sensitive (ts) mutations are valuable reagents for studying essential genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed 787 ts strains, covering 497 (∼45%) of the 1,101 essential yeast genes, with ∼30% of the genes represented by multiple alleles. All of the alleles are integrated into their native genomic locus in the(More)
The budding yeast kinetochore is comprised of >60 proteins and associates with 120 bp of centromeric (CEN) DNA. Kinetochore proteins are highly dynamic and exhibit programmed cell cycle changes in localization. The CEN-specific histone, Cse4p, is one of a few stable kinetochore components and remains associated with CEN DNA throughout mitosis. In contrast,(More)
Genetically encoded fluorescent proteins are an essential tool in cell biology, widely used for investigating cellular processes with molecular specificity. Direct uses of fluorescent proteins include studies of the in vivo cellular localization and dynamics of a protein, as well as measurement of its in vivo concentration. In this chapter, we focus on the(More)
BACKGROUND Eukaryotic cells localize selected mRNAs to a region of the cell as a means to sequester proteins. Signals within the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) facilitate mRNA localization by both actin and microtubule cytoskeletal systems. Recently, an mRNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ASH1, was shown to coalesce into a discrete particle that is(More)