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Point and regional centromeres specify a unique site on each chromosome for kinetochore assembly. The point centromere in budding yeast is a unique 150-bp DNA sequence, which supports a kinetochore with only one microtubule attachment. In contrast, regional centromeres are complex in architecture, can be up to 5 Mb in length, and typically support many(More)
Cse4 is the budding yeast homologue of CENP-A, a modified histone H3 that specifies the base of kinetochores in all eukaryotes. Budding yeast is unique in having only one kinetochore microtubule attachment site per centromere. The centromere is specified by CEN DNA, a sequence-specific binding complex (CBF3), and a Cse4-containing nucleosome. Here we(More)
BACKGROUND Cohesin proteins link sister chromatids and provide the basis for tension between bioriented sister chomatids in mitosis. Cohesin is concentrated at the centromere region of the chromosome despite the fact that sister centromeres can be separated by 800 nm in vivo. The function of cohesin at sites of separated DNA is unknown. RESULTS We provide(More)
It has been hypothesized that spatial gradients in kMT dynamic instability facilitate mitotic spindle formation and chromosome movement. To test this hypothesis requires the analysis of kMT dynamics, which have not been resolved at the single kMT level in living cells. The budding yeast spindle offers an attractive system in which to study kMT dynamics(More)
Microtubule dynamics are influenced by interactions of microtubules with cellular factors and by changes in the primary sequence of the tubulin molecule. Mutations of yeast beta-tubulin C354, which is located near the binding site of some antimitotic compounds, reduce microtubule dynamicity greater than 90% in vivo and in vitro. The resulting intrinsically(More)
Dicentric chromosomes undergo a breakage-fusion-bridge cycle as a consequence of having two centromeres on the same chromatid attach to opposite spindle poles in mitosis. Suppression of dicentric chromosome breakage reflects loss of kinetochore function at the kinetochore-microtubule or the kinetochore-DNA interface. Using a conditionally functional(More)
Fluorescence microscopy provides a powerful method for localization of structures in biological specimens. However , aspects of the image formation process such as noise and blur from the microscope's point-spread function combine to produce an unintuitive image transformation on the true structure of the fluorescing molecules in the specimen, hindering(More)
The kinetochore is a crucial structure for faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis and is formed in the centromeric region of each chromosome. The 16-subunit protein complex known as the constitutive centromere-associated network (CCAN) forms the foundation for kinetochore assembly on the centromeric chromatin. Although the CCAN can be divided into(More)
The cohesin complex (Mcd1p, Smc1p, Smc3p, and Scc3p) has multiple roles in chromosome architecture, such as promoting sister chromatid cohesion, chromosome condensation, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. The prevailing embrace model for sister chromatid cohesion posits that a single cohesin complex entraps both sister chromatids. We report(More)
Centromeres are characterized by the centromere-specific H3 variant CENP-A, which is embedded in chromatin with a pattern characteristic of active transcription that is required for centromere identity. It is unclear how centromeres remain transcriptionally active despite being flanked by repressive pericentric heterochromatin. To further understand(More)