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Localization of dynein-green fluorescent protein (GFP) to cytoplasmic microtubules allowed us to obtain one of the first views of the dynamic properties of astral microtubules in live budding yeast. Several novel aspects of microtubule function were revealed by time-lapse, three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy. Astral microtubules, about four to six in(More)
In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the mitotic spindle must be positioned along the mother-bud axis to activate the mitotic exit network (MEN) in anaphase. To examine MEN proteins during mitotic exit, we imaged the MEN activators Tem1p and Cdc15p and the MEN regulator Bub2p in vivo. Quantitative live cell fluorescence microscopy demonstrated the(More)
Using green fluorescent protein probes and rapid acquisition of high-resolution fluorescence images, sister centromeres in budding yeast are found to be separated and oscillate between spindle poles before anaphase B spindle elongation. The rates of movement during these oscillations are similar to those of microtubule plus end dynamics. The degree of(More)
Cse4 is the budding yeast homologue of CENP-A, a modified histone H3 that specifies the base of kinetochores in all eukaryotes. Budding yeast is unique in having only one kinetochore microtubule attachment site per centromere. The centromere is specified by CEN DNA, a sequence-specific binding complex (CBF3), and a Cse4-containing nucleosome. Here we(More)
Point and regional centromeres specify a unique site on each chromosome for kinetochore assembly. The point centromere in budding yeast is a unique 150-bp DNA sequence, which supports a kinetochore with only one microtubule attachment. In contrast, regional centromeres are complex in architecture, can be up to 5 Mb in length, and typically support many(More)
BACKGROUND Eukaryotic cells localize selected mRNAs to a region of the cell as a means to sequester proteins. Signals within the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) facilitate mRNA localization by both actin and microtubule cytoskeletal systems. Recently, an mRNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ASH1, was shown to coalesce into a discrete particle that is(More)
We have examined the chromatin structure of the centromere regions of chromosomes III and XI in yeast by using cloned functional centromere DNAs (CEN3 and CEN11) as labeled probes. When chromatin from isolated nuclei is digested with micrococcal nuclease and the resulting DNA fragments separated electrophoretically and blotted to nitrocellulose filters, the(More)
Tagging expressed proteins with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria [1] is a highly specific and sensitive technique for studying the intracellular dynamics of proteins and organelles. We have developed, as a probe, a fusion protein of the carboxyl terminus of dynein and GFP (dynein-GFP), which fluorescently labels the astral(More)
With a single microtubule attachment, budding-yeast kinetochores provide an excellent system for understanding the coordinated linkage to dynamic microtubule plus ends for chromosome oscillation and positioning. Fluorescent tagging of kinetochore proteins indicates that, on average, all centromeres are clustered, distinctly separated from their sisters, and(More)
The kinetochore is a macromolecular protein machine [1] that links centromeric chromatin to the plus ends of one or more microtubules (MTs) and segregates chromosomes during cell division. Its core structure consists of eight multicomponent protein complexes, most of which are conserved in all eukaryotes. We use an in vivo two-color fluorescence microscopy(More)