Kerry R Turner

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In 1997, the global value of ecosystem services was estimated to average $33 trillion/yr in 1995 $US ($46 trillion/yr in 2007 $US). In this paper, we provide an updated estimate based on updated unit ecosystem service values and land use change estimates between 1997 and 2011. We also address some of the critiques of the 1997 paper. Using the same methods(More)
This paper critically reviews the literature on environmental valuation of ecosystem services across the range of global biomes. The main objective of this review is to assess the policy relevance of the information encompassed by the wide range of valuation studies that have been undertaken so far. Published and other studies now cover most ecosystems,(More)
Despite accounting for 17–25% of anthropogenic emissions, deforestation was not included in the Kyoto Protocol. The UN Convention on Climate Change is considering its inclusion in future agreements and asked its scientific board to study methodological and scientific issues related to positive incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation. Here we(More)
It has become essential in policy and decision-making circles to think about the economic benefits (in addition to moral and scientific motivations) humans derive from well-functioning ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed to address this link between ecosystems and human welfare. Since policy decisions are often evaluated through(More)
T he Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are designed to inspire efforts to improve people’s lives by, among other priorities, halving extreme poverty by 2015 ( 1). Analogously, concern about global decline in biodiversity and degradation of ecosystem services ( 2) gave rise in 1992 to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The CBD target “to achieve(More)
The Axios River delta and the Inner Thermaikos Gulf coastal zone have experienced a long period of human interventions during the past 100 years. A post-evaluation of long run coastal zone changes under the Drivers-Pressures-State-Impacts-Response (DPSIR) conceptual framework is presented. The DPSIR approach is then used to project out into possible futures(More)
We analyzed the presence or absence of intradural hemorrhage (IDH) and subdural hemorrhage (SDH) and the degree of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the brain of all nonmacerated fetuses of >24 weeks, neonates, and children up to 3 years of age who died of natural causes over a defined period. We looked into the cause of death and the performance of(More)
Annual revenue flow to developing countries for ecotourism (or nature-based tourism) could be as large as US$ 210×10(12), providing an enormous financial incentive against habitat loss and exploitation. However, is ecotourism the most privately and/or socially valuable use of rainforest land? The question is rarely answered because the relevant data,(More)
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a single-chain polypeptide that previously was shown in mice to produce hypercalcemia and influence skeletal growth and turnover. We performed dose-response studies to determine if LIF alters the serum calcium or histomorphometry of the tibia in growing male rats. Forty animals were divided into five groups of eight(More)