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BACKGROUND Echinacea is widely used to treat the common cold. OBJECTIVE To assess the potential benefits of echinacea as a treatment of common cold. DESIGN Randomized, controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00065715) SETTING Dane County, Wisconsin. PATIENTS 719 patients, aged 12 to 80 years, with new-onset common cold. (More)
Echinacea is a widely used herbal remedy for the treatment of colds and other infections. However, almost nothing is known about the disposition and pharmacokinetics of any of its components, particularly the alkamides and caffeic acid conjugates which are thought to be the active phytochemicals. In this investigation, we have examined serial plasma samples(More)
Echinacea preparations are widely used herbal remedies for the prevention and treatment of colds. In this study we have investigated the metabolism by human liver microsomes of the alkylamide components from an Echinacea preparation as well as that of pure synthetic alkylamides. No significant degradation of alkylamides was evident in cytosolic fractions.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The n-hexane extracts of the roots of three medicinally used Echinacea species exhibited cytotoxic activity on human cancer cell lines, with Echinacea pallida found to be the most cytotoxic. Acetylenes are present in E. pallida lipophilic extracts but essentially absent in extracts from the other two species. In the present study, the(More)
OBJECTIVES Study aims were to evaluate effects of Bacopa monnieri whole plant standardized dry extract on cognitive function and affect and its safety and tolerability in healthy elderly study participants. DESIGN The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with a placebo run-in of 6 weeks and a treatment period of 12(More)
Echinacea preparations are widely used herbal medicines for the prevention and treatment of colds and minor infections. There is little evidence for the individual components in Echinacea that contribute to immune regulatory activity. Activity of an ethanolic Echinacea extract and several constituents, including cichoric acid, have been examined using three(More)
Echinacea preparations are used for the treatment and prevention of upper respiratory tract infections. The phytochemicals believed responsible for the immunomodulatory properties are the alkylamides found in ethanolic extracts, with one of the most abundant being the N-isobutyldodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z-tetraenamide (1). In this study, we evaluated the human(More)
The ability of Echinacea and its components to alter the immune response was examined in vitro in a macrophage cell line under either basal or immunostimulated conditions. Potential immunostimulatory and inflammatory activity was determined using a nuclear transcription factor (NFkappaB) expression, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and nitric oxide(More)
A divergent synthesis of (2E,4E,8E,10E)- and (2E,4E,8E,10Z)-N-isobutyldodeca-2,4,8,10-tetraenamides from pent-4-yn-1-ol allowed identification of the (2E,4E,8E,10Z)-isomer for the first time in Echinacea species. A short, stereoselective synthesis of the (2E,4E,8E,10Z)-isomer is also described which allowed further biological evaluation of this material,(More)
RATIONALE Piper methysticum (Kava) has been withdrawn in European, British, and Canadian markets due to concerns over hepatotoxic reactions. The WHO recently recommended research into "aqueous" extracts of Kava. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to conduct the first documented human clinical trial assessing the anxiolytic and antidepressant(More)