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The mechanisms by which mammals discriminate a vast array of diverse odors are poorly understood. To gain insight into the organizational strategies underlying this discriminatory capacity, we have examined the spatial distribution of odorant receptor RNAs in the mouse olfactory epithelium. We have observed topographically distinct patterns of receptor RNAs(More)
In the mammalian olfactory system, information from approximately 1000 different odorant receptor types is organized in the nose into four spatial zones. Each zone is a mosaic of randomly distributed neurons expressing different receptor types. In these studies, we have obtained evidence that information highly distributed in the nose is transformed in the(More)
NMDA receptor antagonists block conditioned fear extinction when injected systemically and also when infused directly into the amygdala. Here we evaluate the ability of D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the strychnine-insensitive glycine-recognition site on the NMDA receptor complex, to facilitate conditioned fear extinction after systemic(More)
CONTEXT Genetic inheritance and developmental life stress both contribute to major depressive disorder in adults. Child abuse and trauma alter the endogenous stress response, principally corticotropin-releasing hormone and its downstream effectors, suggesting that a gene x environment interaction at this locus may be important in depression. OBJECTIVE To(More)
The endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system represents a major therapeutic target for the treatment of a variety of anxiety-related disorders. A recent study has demonstrated that pharmacologic or genetic disruption of CB1-receptor-mediated neurotransmission decreases the extinction of conditioned fear in mice. Here, we examined whether CB1 blockade would(More)
DNA methylation may mediate persistent changes in gene function following chronic stress. To examine this hypothesis, we evaluated African American subjects matched by age and sex, and stratified into four groups by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis and history of child abuse. Total Life Stress (TLS) was also assessed in all subjects. We(More)
Recent decades have witnessed tremendous advances in the neuroscience of emotion, learning and memory, and in animal models for understanding depression and anxiety. This review focuses on new rationally designed psychiatric treatments derived from preclinical human and animal studies. Nonpharmacological treatments that affect disrupted emotion circuits(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to play a critical role in the synaptic plasticity underlying the acquisition and/or consolidation of certain forms of memory. Additionally, a role has been suggested for neurotrophin function within the hippocampus in protection from anxiety and depressive disorders. Understanding the function of this(More)
Previous work suggests the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system may be dynamically regulated during emotional learning. In the current study we examined training-induced changes in the expression of GABA(A)-related genes and the binding of GABA receptor radioligands in the amygdala after the acquisition and extinction of Pavlovian fear. Using in situ(More)
Although the fact that genetic predisposition and environmental exposures interact to shape development and function of the human brain and, ultimately, the risk of psychiatric disorders has drawn wide interest, the corresponding molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. We found that a functional polymorphism altering chromatin interaction between(More)