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The mechanisms by which mammals discriminate a vast array of diverse odors are poorly understood. To gain insight into the organizational strategies underlying this discriminatory capacity, we have examined the spatial distribution of odorant receptor RNAs in the mouse olfactory epithelium. We have observed topographically distinct patterns of receptor RNAs(More)
In the mammalian olfactory system, information from approximately 1000 different odorant receptor types is organized in the nose into four spatial zones. Each zone is a mosaic of randomly distributed neurons expressing different receptor types. In these studies, we have obtained evidence that information highly distributed in the nose is transformed in the(More)
NMDA receptor antagonists block conditioned fear extinction when injected systemically and also when infused directly into the amygdala. Here we evaluate the ability of D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the strychnine-insensitive glycine-recognition site on the NMDA receptor complex, to facilitate conditioned fear extinction after systemic(More)
Recent decades have witnessed tremendous advances in the neuroscience of emotion, learning and memory, and in animal models for understanding depression and anxiety. This review focuses on new rationally designed psychiatric treatments derived from preclinical human and animal studies. Nonpharmacological treatments that affect disrupted emotion circuits(More)
Previous work suggests the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system may be dynamically regulated during emotional learning. In the current study we examined training-induced changes in the expression of GABA(A)-related genes and the binding of GABA receptor radioligands in the amygdala after the acquisition and extinction of Pavlovian fear. Using in situ(More)
Both the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear appear to require the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Because these two forms of learning have opposing effects on the expression of conditioned fear, we hypothesized that they may modulate GABAergic tone differentially within the BLA. Previously, we reported that gene expression for the GABA(A) receptor(More)
CONTEXT In addition to trauma exposure, other factors contribute to risk for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Both genetic and environmental factors are contributory, with child abuse providing significant risk liability. OBJECTIVE To increase understanding of genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their(More)
The endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system represents a major therapeutic target for the treatment of a variety of anxiety-related disorders. A recent study has demonstrated that pharmacologic or genetic disruption of CB1-receptor-mediated neurotransmission decreases the extinction of conditioned fear in mice. Here, we examined whether CB1 blockade would(More)
Fear extinction is defined as a decline in conditioned fear responses (CRs) following nonreinforced exposure to a feared conditioned stimulus (CS). Behavioral evidence indicates that extinction is a form of inhibitory learning: Extinguished fear responses reappear with the passage of time (spontaneous recovery), a shift of context (renewal), and unsignaled(More)
DNA methylation may mediate persistent changes in gene function following chronic stress. To examine this hypothesis, we evaluated African American subjects matched by age and sex, and stratified into four groups by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis and history of child abuse. Total Life Stress (TLS) was also assessed in all subjects. We(More)