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The role in spatial divided and sustained attention of D1 and D2-like dopamine (DA) receptors in the rat prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was investigated in a five-choice serial reaction time task. Rats were trained to detect brief flashes of light (0.5-0.25 sec) presented randomly in a spatial array of five apertures. When performance stabilized,(More)
The idea that new memories undergo a time-dependent consolidation process after acquisition has received considerable experimental support. More controversial has been the demonstration that established memories, once recalled, become labile and sensitive to disruption, requiring "reconsolidation" to become permanent. By infusing antisense(More)
The neuroanatomical and molecular basis of fear memory retrieval was studied by analyzing the expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early gene zif268. Cellular quantitative in situ hybridization revealed that zif268 is expressed within specific regions of the hippocampus and amygdala during fear memory retrieval. Within the hippocampus,(More)
The hippocampus is required for many forms of long-term memory in both humans and animals, and formation of long-lasting memories requires the synthesis of new proteins. Furthermore, the long-term potentiation (LTP) of hippocampal synapses, a widely studied model of memory, also depends on both de novo gene transcription and protein synthesis and results in(More)
Maladaptive memories that associate environmental stimuli with the effects of drugs of abuse are known to be a major cause of relapse to, and persistence of, a drug addictive habit. However, memories may be disrupted after their acquisition and consolidation by impairing their reconsolidation. Here, we show that infusion of Zif268 antisense(More)
Fear memory retrieval has been shown to induce a protein-synthesis dependent re-consolidation of memories within the amygdala. Here, using immunocytochemistry, we investigated the molecular basis of this process in the rat and show that retrieval of a cued fear memory induces the activation, by phosphorylation, of the transcription factor CREB within the(More)
We investigated the neuronal activation associated with reexposure to a discrete cocaine-associated stimulus using in situ hybridization to quantify the expression of the plasticity-regulated gene, gamma protein kinase C (gamma PKC), in the limbic-cortical-ventral striatal system. Groups of rats were trained to self-administer cocaine paired with a light(More)
Since its discovery almost three decades ago, the secreted neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been firmly implicated in the differentiation and survival of neurons of the CNS. More recently, BDNF has also emerged as an important regulator of synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity mechanisms underlying learning and memory in the adult(More)
It is essential to understand the molecular processes underlying long-term memory to provide therapeutic targets of aberrant memory that produce pathological behaviour in humans. Under conditions of recall, fully-consolidated memories can undergo reconsolidation or extinction. These retrieval-mediated memory processes may rely on distinct molecular(More)
Recent large-scale genomic studies have revealed two broad classes of risk alleles for schizophrenia: a polygenic component of risk mediated through multiple common risk variants and rarer more highly penetrant submicroscopic chromosomal deletions and duplications, known as copy number variants. The focus of this review is on the emerging findings from the(More)