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Fish in agricultural and remote areas may be exposed to endosulfan and its degradation products as a result of direct runoff, atmospheric transport and deposition. The following study used the zebrafish developmental model to investigate the responses to endosulfan I and endosulfan sulfate, the major degradation product of endosulfan I and II. Embryos were(More)
Atmospherically deposited pesticides from the intensively cultivated Central Valley of California, USA, have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the frogs Rana muscosa and Rana sierrae at high elevation in the Sierra Nevada mountains. Previous studies on these species have relied(More)
BACKGROUND Optimal androgen signaling is critical for testicular development and spermatogenesis. Methoxyacetic acid (MAA), the primary active metabolite of the industrial chemical ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, disrupts spermatogenesis and causes testicular atrophy. Transcriptional trans-activation studies have indicated that MAA can enhance androgen(More)
Populations of Cascades frogs (Rana cascadae) have declined precipitously in the Mount Lassen area, but remain abundant in the other half of their California range in the Klamath Mountains. To evaluate the role of contaminants in Cascade frog declines, we sampled sediment and frog tadpole tissue at 31 sites where Cascades frogs had disappeared and sites(More)
Atmospherically deposited contaminants in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA have been implicated as adversely affecting amphibians and fish, yet little is known about the distributions of contaminants within the mountains, particularly at high elevation. The hypothesis that contaminant concentrations in a high-elevation portion of the Sierra(More)
Contaminants used at low elevation, such as pesticides on crops, can be transported tens of kilometers and deposited in adjacent mountains in many parts of the world. Atmospherically deposited organic contaminants in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA, have exceeded some thresholds of concern, but the spatial and temporal distributions of(More)
Atrazine (ATZ) is a selective triazine herbicide used primarily for preemergent weed control in corn, sorghum, and sugar cane production. It is one of the most widely used herbicides in North America. Some research published over the last decade suggests that chronic exposure to environmentally relevant ATZ concentrations can adversely impact gonadal(More)
Analytical methods capable of trace measurement of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) are necessary to assess the exposure of tadpoles to contaminants as a result of long-range and regional atmospheric transport and deposition. The present study compares the results of two analytical methods, one using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and the other(More)
Visual line fitting and direct estimation of the correlation coefficient were carried out by 50 subjects using computer-generated scattergrams as stimuli. In visual line fitting, slopes of visual lines were generally greater than the corresponding regression slopes, in agreement with the hypothesis that visual lines are placed so as to bisect the cloud of(More)
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