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Conflicting results concerning the ability of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor to associate with and/or activate phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase have been published. Despite the ability of EGF to stimulate the production of PtdIns 3-kinase products and to cause the appearance of PtdIns 3-kinase activity in antiphosphotyrosine(More)
How do distinct protein-tyrosine kinases activate specific down-stream events? Src-homology-2 (SH2) domains on tyrosine kinases or targets of tyrosine kinases recognize phosphotyrosine in a specific sequence context and thereby provide some specificity. The role of the catalytic site of tyrosine kinases in determining target specificity has not been fully(More)
Pleckstrin homology (PH) and phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains are structurally related regulatory modules that are present in a variety of proteins involved in signal transduction, such as kinases, phospholipases, GTP exchange proteins, and adapter proteins. Initially these domains were shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, but more recently(More)
Her2 is overexpressed in 20% to 30% of breast tumors and correlates with reduced disease-free and overall patient survival. Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against Her2, represents the first Her2-targeted therapy, which decreases the risk of relapse and prolongs patient survival. Resistance to trastuzumab, both inherent and(More)
The neuregulins (NRGs) are a family of multipotent epidermal-growth-factor-like (EGF-like) factors that arise from splice variants of a single gene. They influence the growth, differentiation, survival and fate of several cell types. We have now discovered a set of new neuregulin-like growth factors, which we call neuregulin-2 (NRG-2): these are encoded by(More)
Despite numerous recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying receptor tyrosine kinase down-regulation and degradation in response to growth factor binding, relatively little is known about ligand-independent receptor tyrosine kinase degradation mechanisms. In a screen for proteins that might regulate the trafficking or(More)
The molecular mechanisms by which mammalian receptor tyrosine kinases are negatively regulated remain largely unexplored. Previous genetic and biochemical studies indicate that Kekkon-1, a transmembrane protein containing leucine-rich repeats and an immunoglobulin-like domain in its extracellular region, acts as a feedback negative regulator of epidermal(More)
Overexpression of erbB2 in breast tumors is associated with poor prognosis and is a target of receptor-oriented cancer therapy. Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a monoclonal antibody against a membrane-proximal epitope in the extracellular region of erbB2, shows a therapeutic effect against a fraction of erbB2-amplified breast tumors. Unfortunately, resistance to(More)
Protein kinases share a number of highly conserved or invariant amino acid residues in their catalytic domains, suggesting that these residues are necessary for kinase activity. In p180erbB3, a receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor subfamily, three of these residues are altered, suggesting that this protein might(More)