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GemSIM, or General Error-Model based SIMulator, is a next-generation sequencing simulator capable of generating single or paired-end reads for any sequencing technology compatible with the generic formats SAM and FASTQ (including Illumina and Roche/454). GemSIM creates and uses empirically derived, sequence-context based error models to realistically(More)
Deep sequencing harnesses the high throughput nature of next generation sequencing technologies to generate population samples, treating information contained in individual reads as meaningful. Here, we review applications of deep sequencing to pathogen evolution. Pioneering deep sequencing studies from the virology literature are discussed, such as whole(More)
Generation of genetic diversity is a prerequisite for bacterial evolution and adaptation. Short-term diversification and selection within populations is, however, largely uncharacterised, as existing studies typically focus on fixed substitutions. Here, we use whole-genome deep-sequencing to capture the spectrum of mutations arising during biofilm(More)
Hepatitis C is a pandemic human RNA virus, which commonly causes chronic infection and liver disease. The characterization of viral populations that successfully initiate infection, and also those that drive progression to chronicity is instrumental for understanding pathogenesis and vaccine design. A comprehensive and longitudinal analysis of the viral(More)
Deep sequencing is a powerful tool for assessing viral genetic diversity. Such experiments harness the high coverage afforded by next generation sequencing protocols by treating sequencing reads as a population sample. Distinguishing true single nucleotide variants (SNVs) from sequencing errors remains challenging, however. Current protocols are(More)
Direct sequencing of environmental DNA (metagenomics) has a great potential for describing the 16S rRNA gene diversity of microbial communities. However current approaches using this 16S rRNA gene information to describe community diversity suffer from low taxonomic resolution or chimera problems. Here we describe a new strategy that involves stringent(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 18A is a clinical, nonclonal isolate retrieved from the sputum of a chronically infected cystic fibrosis patient. The genome of 18A was sequenced for comparison with environmental and clinical isolates to identify genes that might facilitate its persistence during infection.
Local adaptation of a species can affect community composition, yet the importance of local adaptation compared with species presence per se is unknown. Here we determine how a compost bacterial community exposed to elevated temperature changes over 2 months as a result of the presence of a focal bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25, that had been(More)
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