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The circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS), including the biologically active angiotensin II, is a fundamental regulatory mechanism of blood pressure conserved through evolution. Angiotensin II components of the RAS have also been identified in the brain. In addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuromodulators, such as angiotensin II can induce(More)
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts Angiotensin I to a potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (ANG II). ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) are widely used for the management of hypertension. All components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have also been identified in the brain. In addition to cytokines, neuromodulators such as ANG II can induce(More)
An Increasing body of evidence supports a critical role of brain inflammation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. A principal aspect of the brain immune response to inflammation is the activation of microglia. It has been shown that the kinin system is activated during brain inflammation and previously we demonstrated that bradykinin B1 receptor(More)
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a major circulative system engaged in homeostasis modulation. Angiotensin II (Ang II) serves as its main effector hormone upon binding to its primary receptor, Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1R). It is well established that an intrinsic independent brain RAS exists. Abnormal AT1R activation both in the periphery and in the(More)
The role of kinins, well known as peripheral inflammatory mediators, in the modulation of brain inflammation is not completely understood. The present data show that bradykinin, a B2 receptor agonist, enhanced both basal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and protein levels and prostaglandin E2 synthesis in primary rat astrocytes. By(More)
The importance of brain inflammation to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis has been accepted of late, with it currently being held that brain inflammation aggravates AD pathology. One important aspect of brain inflammation is the recruitment and activation of microglia, a process termed microgliosis. Kinins and bradykinin (BK), in particular, are major(More)
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