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For early vertebrates, a long-standing hypothesis is that vertebrae evolved as a locomotor adaptation, stiffening the body axis and enhancing swimming performance. While supported by biomechanical data, this hypothesis has not been tested using an evolutionary approach. We did so by extending biomimetic evolutionary analysis (BEA), which builds physical(More)
To test adaptation hypotheses about the evolution of animals, we need information about the behavior of phenotypically-variable individuals in a specific environment. To model behavior of ancient fish-like vertebrates, we previously combined evolutionary robotics and software simulations to create autonomous biomimetic swimmers in a simple aquatic(More)
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