Learn More
Nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NNKTL) is an aggressive neoplasm with poor therapeutic responses and prognosis. The programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway plays an important role in immune evasion of tumor cells through T-cell exhaustion. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 molecules(More)
Tumor immune escape has been a major problem for developing effective immunotherapy. The human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is a non-classical MHC class I molecule whose primary function is to protect the fetus from the mother's immune system. While HLA-G is hardly found in normal adult tissues, various tumor cells are known to express it, aiding their(More)
We investigated the relationship between nasopharyngeal flora of pediatric patients and antibiotic consumption in a local community in Japan between 2000 and 2009 retrospectively. There was a clear relationship between the lower annual consumption rate of cephalosporins and the lower annual prevalence of non-susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae(More)
Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) spontaneously contributes to anti-tumor immunity by inducing type I interferons (IFNs) following sensing of tumor-derived genomic DNAs in the tumor-bearing host. Although direct injection of STING ligands such as cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) and cyclic [G(2′,5′)pA(3′,5′)p] (cGAMP) into the tumor(More)
Despite recent advances in treatment for melanoma patients through using immune checkpoint inhibitors, these monotherapies have limitations and additional treatments have been explored. Type I IFNs have been used to treat melanoma and possess immunomodulatory effects including enhancement of T-cell infiltration. T-cell plays a critical role in immune(More)
  • 1