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We examined the toxicity of methamphetamine and dopamine in CATH.a cells, which were derived from mouse dopamine-producing neural cells in the central nervous system. Use of the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that transcripts of the endoplasmic reticulum stress related gene (CHOP/Gadd153/ddit3) were considerably induced at 24-48 h(More)
The effects of various ginseng saponins (ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg2, Rh1, Ro and Rs1), which are isolated from the root of Panax ginseng, on the catecholamine secretion from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells stimulated by ACh were examined. Most of the ginsenosides (1-100 microM) had a tendency to reduce the ACh-evoked secretion of(More)
We investigated the effects of four ginseng saponins, ginsenoside-Rb1, -Rg2, -Rg3 and -Ro, on the responses induced by receptor stimulation of various stimuli. Ginsenoside-Rg2 (1-100 microM) reduced the secretions of catecholamines from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells stimulated by acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid but not by angiotensin II,(More)
Compared to two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures, three-dimensional (3D) tumor cell culture models are thought to be structurally more similar to the in vivo tumor microenvironment. We investigated the regulation of the expression of genes encoding the drug-metabolizing enzymes CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in 3D spheroids comprised of cells of the human(More)
The combination of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) subunits connecting with the secretion of catecholamines in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was pharmacologically investigated using selective agonists and antagonists for their nAChRs. The EC(50) values (microM) for the agonists that stimulate the catecholamine secretion and the rank order were(More)
It is known that the nervous system significantly attenuates systemic inflammatory responses through the parasympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, it has been reported that the alpha 7 subunit of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is required for a cholinergic inhibition against cytokine synthesis in a macrophage. As antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play(More)
We reported previously that the protopanaxatriol saponins in Panax ginseng greatly reduce the secretion of catecholamines from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells stimulated by acetylcholine (ACh). However, protopanaxadiol saponins showed only slight inhibitory effects. Recent studies have demonstrated that oligosaccharides connected to the hydroxyl groups of(More)
Since ginsenoside-Rg(3), one of the panaxadiol saponins isolated from the ginseng root, significantly inhibited the secretion of catecholamines from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells stimulated by acetylcholine (ACh), the properties of ginsenoside-Rg(3) inhibition were investigated. Although ginsenoside-Rg(3) inhibited the secretion evoked by ACh in a(More)
We investigated the effects of root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer on the secretion of catecholamines (CAs) from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells stimulated by acetylcholine (ACh). In two major parts, nonsaponin and crude saponin fractions from the root, the crude saponin but not the non-saponin greatly reduced the ACh-evoked secretion. Furthermore, various(More)
To investigate the relationship between the inhibitory effects of ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) on acetylcholine-evoked secretion of catecholamines and the structures of ginsenosides, we examined the effects of ginsenoside-Rg3 and -Rh2, which are panaxadiol saponins, 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg2, which are epimers involving the hydroxyl group at C-20(More)