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  • K. Itoh
  • 2008
The minimum operating voltage (V<sub>min</sub>) of nano-scale LSIs is investigated, focusing on logic gates, SRAM cells, and DRAM sense amplifiers in LSIs. The V<sub>min</sub> that is governed by SRAM cells rapidly increases as devices are miniaturized due to the ever-larger variation of the threshold voltage (V<sub>T</sub>) of MOSFETs. The V<sub>min</sub>,(More)
It has previously been reported that ischemia and reperfusion of the heart cause accumulation of lyophosphatidylcholine (LPC) within the myocardium. While it is known that LPC causes the transient increase of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) during contraction of cardiac cells, little is known about the mechanism for decreasing [Ca2+]i in(More)
Several physiological stimuli cause a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cardiomyocytes. This increased [Ca2+]i must be restored to physiological resting level to ensure response to further stimuli. In the present study, we examined the effect of neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is secreted from certain adrenergic or non-adrenergic neurons, on(More)
This paper proposes a high quality speech synthesis system based on waveform synthesis. Our most recent text-to-speech (TTS) system achieved very good performance by using waveform synthesis units. The system, however, required a very large speech data base. A compact system could only be created by developing a very small data package. This paper proposes(More)
  • K. Itoh
  • 2005
Low-voltage high-density embedded RAMs (e-RAMs) in the nanometer era are described, with a focus on RAM cells and peripheral circuits. First, challenges and trends in low-voltage e-RAMs are described based on the signal-to-noise ratio problem of RAM cells, then leakage and speed-variation problems of peripheral circuits. Next, state-of-the-art low-voltage(More)