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Increasing survival of motor neuron 2, centromeric (SMN2) exon 7 inclusion to express more full-length SMN protein in motor neurons is a promising approach to treat spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a genetic neurodegenerative disease. Previously, we identified a potent 2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl) (MOE) phosphorothioate-modified antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) that(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a motor neuron disease and the leading genetic cause of infant mortality; it results from loss-of-function mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. Humans have a paralogue, SMN2, whose exon 7 is predominantly skipped, but the limited amount of functional, full-length SMN protein expressed from SMN2 cannot fully(More)
Using a morphometric method, we studied ventral spinal roots and anterior horn neurons of the fourth lumbar segment in 17 patients with ALS. Both populations of large myelinated fibers and anterior horn cells had significantly high correlations to muscle strength in the legs and duration of symptoms. However, active axonal degeneration was consistently(More)
The neuropathological changes were examined in 2 cases of type I familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), confirmed by a genetic study with human transthyretin (prealbumin) cDNA. These cases were from different foci of type I FAP in Japan, but showed a similar pathology in the peripheral nerves. Loss of dorsal root and sympathetic ganglion neurons,(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease that affects males, results from a CAG triplet repeat/polyglutamine expansions in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Patients develop progressive muscular weakness and atrophy, and no effective therapy is currently available. The tissue-specific pathogenesis, especially(More)
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a motor-neuron disease and the leading genetic cause of infant mortality; it is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the Survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene 1. Humans have a paralog, SMN2, whose exon 7 is predominantly skipped 2 ; the limited amount of functional, full-length SMN it expresses cannot fully compensate for(More)
Ventral spinal roots and anterior horn cells in the lateral nuclear group of the fourth lumbar segment from 21 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 23 control patients were morphometrically analyzed. The number of large myelinated fibers was remarkably decreased, while small myelinated fibers were well preserved. The population of large(More)
Survival of motor neuron (SMN) deficiency causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), but the pathogenesis mechanisms remain elusive. Restoring SMN in motor neurons only partially rescues SMA in mouse models, although it is thought to be therapeutically essential. Here, we address the relative importance of SMN restoration in the central nervous system (CNS)(More)
We have found that two previously reported exonic mutations in the PINK1 and PARK7 genes affect pre-mRNA splicing. To develop an algorithm to predict underestimated splicing consequences of exonic mutations at the 5' splice site, we constructed and analyzed 31 minigenes carrying exonic splicing mutations and their derivatives. We also examined 189,249(More)
Loss-of-function mutations in SMN1 cause spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic cause of infant mortality. The related SMN2 gene expresses suboptimal levels of functional SMN protein, due to a splicing defect. Many SMA patients reach adulthood, and there is also adult-onset (type IV) SMA. There is currently no animal model for adult-onset SMA, and(More)