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The microtubule (MT) network is highly dynamic and undergoes dramatic reorganizations during the cell cycle. Dimers of α- and β-tubulins rapidly polymerize to and depolymerize from the end of MT fibrils in an intrinsic GTP-dependent manner. MT severing by ATP-driven enzymes such as katanin and spastin contributes significantly to microtubule dynamics, and(More)
p97 (also called VCP and CDC-48) is an AAA+ chaperone, which consists of a substrate/cofactor-binding N domain and two ATPase domains (D1 and D2), and forms a homo-hexameric ring. p97 plays crucial roles in a variety of cellular processes such as the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation, autophagy, and(More)
The functional characteristics of group II chaperonins, especially those from archaea, have not been elucidated extensively. Here, we performed a detailed functional characterization of recombinant chaperonin alpha subunits (16-mer) (Ta-cpn alpha) from the thermophilic archaea Thermoplasma acidophilum as a model protein of archaeal group II chaperonins.(More)
Interaction between monomer peptides and seeds is essential for clarifying the fibrillation mechanism of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides. We monitored the deposition reaction of Aβ(1-40) peptides on immobilized seeds grown from Aβ(1-42), which caused formation of oligomers in the early stage. The deposition reaction and fibrillation procedure were monitored(More)
The Group II chaperonin from Thermoplasma acidophilum was added to the in vitro amyloid fibrillation reaction of yeast Sup35NM protein to assess its effects. By measuring the formation of Sup35NM fibrils in real time using the fluorescent dye Thioflavin T, we found that the addition of T. acidophilum-cpn α16, α1, and β1 proteins suppressed fibril formation.(More)
Structural evolution from monomer to fibril of amyloid β peptide is related to pathogenic mechanism of Alzheimer disease, and its acceleration is a long-running problem in drug development. This study reveals that ultrasonic cavitation bubbles behave as catalysts for nucleation of the peptide: The nucleation reaction is highly dependent on frequency and(More)
Compared to the group I chaperonins such as Escherichia coli GroEL, which facilitate protein folding, many aspects of the functional mechanism of archaeal group II chaperonins are still unclear. Here, we show that monomeric forms of archaeal group II chaperonin alpha and beta from Thermoplasma acidophilum may be purified stably and that these monomers(More)
ERdj5, composed of an N-terminal J domain followed by six thioredoxin-like domains, is the largest protein disulfide isomerase family member and functions as an ER-localized disulfide reductase that enhances ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Our previous studies indicated that ERdj5 comprises two regions, the N- and C-terminal clusters, separated by a(More)
Due to their lower production cost compared with monoclonal antibodies, single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) have potential for use in several applications, such as for diagnosis and treatment of a range of diseases, and as sensor elements. However, the usefulness of scFvs is limited by inhomogeneity through the formation of dimers, trimers, and larger(More)
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