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Libet et al. (1983) revealed that brain activity precedes conscious intention. For convenience in this study, we divide brain activity into two parts: a conscious field (CF) and an unconscious field (UF). Most studies have assumed a comparator mechanism or an illusion of CF and discuss the difference of prediction and postdiction. We propose that problems(More)
Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major problem worldwide. Anti-microbial stewardship (AMS) has the vital aim of ensuring optimal use of antimicrobial medicines to minimize AMR. New strategies are needed to reduce AMR. It is vital to ensure that key stakeholders are involved in the development of these strategies. This study aimed to examine(More)
Finger-tapping experiments were conducted to examine whether the dynamics of intrapersonal and interpersonal coordination systems can be described equally by the Haken-Kelso-Bunz model, which describes inter-limb coordination dynamics. This article reports the results of finger-tapping experiments conducted in both systems. Two within-subject factors were(More)
Ethanol was found as the major by-product in lactate fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Several methods have been conducted in order to limit ethanol formation, thus increasing the lactate yield. The direct way to suppress ethanol production can be done by inhibition of the responsible enzymes in the related pathway. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol(More)
To reveal the differences between intra-and inter-personal systems in terms of the perceptual effect on the stability of inter-limb coordination, the present study conducted a finger-tapping experiment in in-phase and anti-phase mode. We investigated a between-subjects factor (the intra-/inter-personal condition), and a within-subject factor (the phase(More)
Eight spore-forming lactic acid producing bacteria were isolated from tree barks in Thailand. They were identified as Sporolactobacillus nakayamae (Group I, three isolates), S. terrae (Group II, two isolates), S. kofuensis (Group III, one isolate) and S. inulinus (Group IV, two isolates) based on their phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence(More)
To reveal the fundamental skills involved in slacklining, this study examined a hypothesis regarding single-leg standing on a slackline. In the field of practice, instructors teach learners how to maintain balance on a swinging flat belt (slackline), such as by moving their hands in parallel. We hypothesized that bimanual coordination in the horizontal(More)
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