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BACKGROUND Natural allergen sources can supply large quantities of authentic allergen mixtures for use as immunotherapeutics. However, such extracts are complex, difficult to define, vary from batch to batch, which may lead to unpredictable efficacy and/or unacceptable levels of side effects. The use of recombinant expression systems for allergen production(More)
Organisms are structurally robust, as cells accommodate changes preserving structural integrity and function. The molecular mechanisms underlying structural robustness and plasticity are poorly understood, but can be investigated by probing how cells respond to injury. Injury to the CNS induces proliferation of enwrapping glia, leading to axonal(More)
Although mechanisms that lead to programmed cell death (PCD) in neurons have been analysed extensively, little is known about how surrounding cells coordinate with it. Here we show that neuronal PCD in the Drosophila brain induces glial cell division. We identified PCD in neurons and cell division in glia occurring in a consistent spatiotemporal manner in(More)
Fifty-two bats captured during July 2008 in the Philippines were tested by reverse transcription-PCR to detect bat coronavirus (CoV) RNA. The overall prevalence of virus RNA was 55.8%. We found 2 groups of sequences that belonged to group 1 (genus Alphacoronavirus) and group 2 (genus Betacoronavirus) CoVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA(More)
BACKGROUND cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) has been implicated in the asexual stage of the Toxoplasma gondii life cycle through assaying the effect of a PKA-specific inhibitor on its growth rate. Since inhibition of the host cell PKA cannot be ruled out, a more precise evaluation of the role of PKA, as well as characterization of the kinase itself, is(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that invades nucleated cells, causing toxoplasmosis in humans and animals worldwide. The extremely wide range of hosts susceptible to T. gondii is thought to be the result of interactions between T. gondii ligands and receptors on its target cells. In this study, a host cell-binding protein from T. gondii was(More)
Because bats are associated with emerging zoonoses, identification and characterization of novel viruses from bats is needed. Using a modified rapid determination system for viral RNA/DNA sequences, we identified a novel bat betaherpesvirus 2 not detected by herpesvirus consensus PCR. This modified system is useful for detecting unknown viruses.
Toxoplasma gondii is an important food and waterborne pathogen that causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients. Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) have an antiparasitic effect on T. gondii tachyzoite growth by targeting T. gondii calmodulin-domain protein kinase 1 (TgCDPK1). To identify mutations that confer resistance to BKIs, chemical mutagenesis(More)
Heparin, a sulfated glycoconjugate, reportedly inhibits the blood-stage growth of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Elucidation of the inhibitory mechanism is valuable for developing novel invasion-blocking treatments based on heparin. Merozoite surface protein 1 has been reported as a candidate target of heparin; however, to better understand the(More)
Toxoplasma rhoptry neck protein 4 (TgRON4) is a component of the moving junction macromolecular complex that plays a central role during invasion. TgRON4 is exposed on the cytosolic side of the host cell during invasion, but its molecular interactions remain unclear. Here, we identified host cellular β-tubulin as a binding partner of TgRON4, but not(More)