BACKGROUND Natural allergen sources can supply large quantities of authentic allergen mixtures for use as immunotherapeutics. However, such extracts are complex, difficult to define, vary from batch to batch, which may lead to unpredictable efficacy and/or unacceptable levels of side effects. The use of recombinant expression systems for allergen production… (More)
The University of Minnesota is committed to the policy that all persons shall have equal access to its programs, Executive Summary The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has been tracking and analyzing state policies on assessment participation and accommodations since 1992. The purpose of the current analysis is to update information on these… (More)
Previously the present protocol was referred as Yuen-Kim second version in our papers. In this paper, it is called Yuen protocol (Y-00) and we present an efficient implementation method of physical layer of Y-00 which can support a secure communication and a quantum key distribution (more generally key expansion) by IMDD(intensity modulation/direct… (More)
In 2000, an attractive new quantum cryptography was discovered by H.P.Yuen based on quantum communication theory. It is applicable to direct encryption, for example quantum stream cipher based on Yuen protocol(Y-00), with high speeds and for long distance by sophisticated optical devices which can work under the average photon number per signal light… (More)
—A certain class of mixed states artificially constructed that is used in quantum cryptography is crucial for representation of signals. This correspondence shows that the square-root measurement gives the optimal measurement for such a class of mixed states.
In this letter, we prove that the classical capacity of quantum channel for M symmetric states is achieved by an uniform distribution on a priori probabilities. We also investigate non-symmetric cases such as a ternary amplitude shift keyed signal set and a 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulated signal set in coherent states.