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Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) supply all blood cells throughout life by making use of their self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capabilities. A monoclonal antibody raised to the mouse homolog of CD34 (mCD34) was used to purify mouse HSCs to near homogeneity. Unlike in humans, primitive adult mouse bone marrow HSCs were detected in the mCD34 low(More)
Synthesis and sorting of lipids are essential for membrane biogenesis; however, the mechanisms underlying the transport of membrane lipids remain little understood. Ceramide is synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum and translocated to the Golgi compartment for conversion to sphingomyelin. The main pathway of ceramide transport to the Golgi is genetically(More)
1. L-trans-Epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) at a concentration of 0.5 mM had no effect on the serine proteinases plasma kallikrein and leucocyte elastase or the metalloproteinases thermolysin and clostridial collagenase. In contrast, 10 muM-E-64 rapidly inactivated the cysteine proteinases cathepsins B, H and L and papain (t0.5 =(More)
The first step in the biosynthesis of sphingolipids is the condensation of serine and palmitoyl CoA, a reaction catalyzed by serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) to produce 3-ketodihydrosphingosine (KDS). This review focuses on recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of SPT. SPT belongs to a family of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent(More)
A series of new epoxysuccinyl peptides were designed and synthesized to develop a specific inhibitor of cathepsin B. Of these compounds, N-(L-3-trans-ethoxycarbonyloxirane-2-carbonyl)-L-isoleucyl-L-proli ne (compound CA-030) and N-(L-3-trans-propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-carbonyl)-L-isoleucyl-L-prol ine (compound CA-074) were the most potent and specific(More)
Sphingolipids have been suggested to act as second messengers for an array of cellular signaling activities in plant cells, including stress responses and programmed cell death (PCD). However, the mechanisms underpinning these processes are not well understood. Here, we report that an Arabidopsis mutant, fumonisin B1 resistant 11-1 (fbr 11-1), which fails(More)
We devised an in situ assay method for the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) that catalyzes the first step in sphingolipid biosynthesis and isolated a temperature-sensitive mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells with thermolabile SPT. This mutant stopped growing at 40 degrees C after several generations, although the cells grew at 33 and 37(More)
Sphingolipids (SLs) play important roles in membrane structure and cell function. Here, we examine the SL requirements of various endocytic mechanisms using a mutant cell line and pharmacological inhibitors to disrupt SL biosynthesis. First, we demonstrated that in Chinese hamster ovary cells we could distinguish three distinct mechanisms of(More)
The transport and sorting of lipids from the sites of their synthesis to their appropriate destinations are fundamental for membrane biogenesis. In the synthesis of sphingolipids in mammalian cells, ceramide is newly produced at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and transported from the ER to the trans Golgi regions, where it is converted to sphingomyelin.(More)
The incidence and degree of neurosensory disturbance of the inferior alveolar nerve, as well as its recovery course, were studied on 46 sides in 23 patients who had undergone bilateral sagittal split osteotomies, by means of subjective symptoms, light touch, anaesthesiometer and two-point discrimination. The degree of disturbance was classified into mild,(More)