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Whether the computational systems in language perception involve specific abilities in humans is debated. The vocalizations of songbirds share many features with human speech, but whether songbirds possess a similar computational ability to process auditory information as humans is unknown. We analyzed their spontaneous discrimination of auditory stimuli(More)
Bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers were acetylated to enhance the properties of optically transparent composites of acrylic resin reinforced with the nanofibers. A series of BC nanofibers acetylated from degree-of-substitution (DS) 0 to 1.76 were obtained. X-ray diffraction profiles indicated that acetylation proceeded from the surface to the core of BC(More)
Hemicelluloses as matrix substances showed an important role in nanofibrillation of wood pulp. Never-dried and once-dried pulps with different amounts of hemicelluloses were fibrillated using a grinding treatment. The degree of fibrillation was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy observation of the fibrillated pulps and light transmittance(More)
Chitin nanofibers were prepared from dried crab shells by a simple grinding treatment in a never-dried state under an acidic condition after the removal of proteins and minerals. The obtained nanofibers were observed by FE-SEM and found to have a uniform width of approximately 10-20 nm and high aspect ratio; both these findings were similar to those for(More)
The mobility of restriction-modification (RM) gene complexes and their association with genome rearrangements is a subject of active investigation. Here we conducted systematic genome comparisons and genome context analysis on fully sequenced prokaryotic genomes to detect RM-linked genome rearrangements. RM genes were frequently found to be linked to(More)
In enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosics, the access of the enzymes to exposed cellulose surfaces is a key initial step in triggering hydrolysis. However, knowledge of the structure-hydrolyzability relationship of the pretreated biomass is still limited. Here we used fluorescent-labeled recombinant carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) from(More)
Songbirds postnatally develop their skill to utter and to perceive a vocal signal for communication. How genetic and environmental influences act in concert to regulate the development of such skill is not fully understood. Here, we report the phenotype of transgenic songbirds with altered intrinsic activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)(More)