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Whether the computational systems in language perception involve specific abilities in humans is debated. The vocalizations of songbirds share many features with human speech, but whether songbirds possess a similar computational ability to process auditory information as humans is unknown. We analyzed their spontaneous discrimination of auditory stimuli(More)
We investigated mechanical interactions between the cellulose microfibril and the matrix substance in wood cell walls. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the peak positions of (200) and (004) from cellulose crystals in wood cell walls tended to shift lower and higher toward 2θ, respectively, during water desorption in wood. From our simulations, it(More)
Bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers were acetylated to enhance the properties of optically transparent composites of acrylic resin reinforced with the nanofibers. A series of BC nanofibers acetylated from degree-of-substitution (DS) 0 to 1.76 were obtained. X-ray diffraction profiles indicated that acetylation proceeded from the surface to the core of BC(More)
We measured the longitudinal and tangential shrinking processes in wood specimens from Chamaecyparis obtuse Endl. with different microfibril angles (MFAs). The shape of the shrinking curve was compared with the MFA. Only the longitudinal shrinking process of specimens with a small MFA clearly showed nonlinearity, and the degree of nonlinearity increased as(More)
To investigate in detail the mechanical interactions and associations between cellulose microfibrils (CMFs) and the matrix substance, we measured the dimensional changes in cellulose crystals in wood cell walls after different treatments. The transverse expansion of CMFs observed after hygrothermal treatment and subsequent drying suggests that the matrix(More)
Three-dimensional observation was carried out on plerocercoids and adults ofDiphyllobothrium dendriticum, D. ditremum, D. latum, andD. vogeli using scanning electron microscopy. The species-specific differences between plerocercoids were recognized in the shapes of the whole body, scolex, and bothrium and the wrinkle pattern on the body surface. The(More)
Chitin nanofibers were prepared from dried crab shells by a simple grinding treatment in a never-dried state under an acidic condition after the removal of proteins and minerals. The obtained nanofibers were observed by FE-SEM and found to have a uniform width of approximately 10-20 nm and high aspect ratio; both these findings were similar to those for(More)
Many parasitologists have paid attention to the trace elements contained in tapeworms for their physiological and taxonomical significance, but the function of these elements in the worm body is still poorly known (Smyth 1969; von Brand 1979). It is well known that numerous granules called calcareous corpuscles are distributed in the body of tapeworms,(More)