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Whether the computational systems in language perception involve specific abilities in humans is debated. The vocalizations of songbirds share many features with human speech, but whether songbirds possess a similar computational ability to process auditory information as humans is unknown. We analyzed their spontaneous discrimination of auditory stimuli(More)
In enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosics, the access of the enzymes to exposed cellulose surfaces is a key initial step in triggering hydrolysis. However, knowledge of the structure-hydrolyzability relationship of the pretreated biomass is still limited. Here we used fluorescent-labeled recombinant carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) from(More)
Bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers were acetylated to enhance the properties of optically transparent composites of acrylic resin reinforced with the nanofibers. A series of BC nanofibers acetylated from degree-of-substitution (DS) 0 to 1.76 were obtained. X-ray diffraction profiles indicated that acetylation proceeded from the surface to the core of BC(More)
The tension wood (TW) properties of a 70-year-old specimen of Acer sieboldianum Miq. were analyzed by using the G-fiber model that was proposed in our previous report. The roles of the G-layer on the origins of (1) a high tensile growth stress, (2) a large longitudinal Young’s modulus, and (3) a high longitudinal drying shrinkage in the TW xylem are(More)
This study examined how boiling and drying treatments influenced various physical properties of the tension wood with gelatinous fibers (G-fibers) of a 29-yearold Zelkova branch. By boiling treatment, tension wood with numerous G-fibers contracted considerably in the longitudinal direction and the longitudinal Young’s modulus decreased in spite of the(More)
Songbirds postnatally develop their skill to utter and to perceive a vocal signal for communication. How genetic and environmental influences act in concert to regulate the development of such skill is not fully understood. Here, we report the phenotype of transgenic songbirds with altered intrinsic activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)(More)
We investigated mechanical interactions between the cellulose microfibril and the matrix substance in wood cell walls. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the peak positions of (200) and (004) from cellulose crystals in wood cell walls tended to shift lower and higher toward 2θ, respectively, during water desorption in wood. From our simulations, it(More)
We measured the longitudinal and tangential shrinking processes in wood specimens from Chamaecyparis obtuse Endl. with different microfibril angles (MFAs). The shape of the shrinking curve was compared with the MFA. Only the longitudinal shrinking process of specimens with a small MFA clearly showed nonlinearity, and the degree of nonlinearity increased as(More)