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Cell signaling mediated by the Notch receptor (N) regulates many cell-fate decisions and is partly controlled by the endocytic trafficking of N. Drosophila deltex (dx) encodes an evolutionarily conserved regulator of N signaling, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, which ubiquitinates N's intracellular domain. Although Dx was shown to function in N endocytosis in(More)
DSL ligands promote proteolysis of the Notch receptor, to release active Notch intracellular domain (N(ICD)). Conversely, the E3 ubiquitin ligase Deltex can activate ligand-independent Notch proteolysis and signaling. Here we show that Deltex effects require endocytic trafficking by HOPS and AP-3 complexes. Our data suggest that Deltex shunts Notch into an(More)
CERK1 is a lysine motif-containing plant pattern recognition receptor for chitin and peptidoglycan. Chitin recognition by OsCERK1 triggers rapid engagement of a rice MAP kinase cascade, which leads to defense response activation. How the MAP kinase cascades are engaged downstream of OsCERK1 remains obscure. Searching for host proteins that interact with(More)
To uncover an underlying mechanism of collective human dynamics, we survey more than 1.8 billion blog entries and observe the statistical properties of word appearances. We focus on words that show dynamic growth and decay with a tendency to diverge on a certain day. After careful pretreatment and the use of a fitting method, we found power laws generally(More)
Recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) initiates pattern-triggered immunity in host plants. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) are the major components required for sensing and transduction of these molecular patterns. However, the regulation of RLCKs by PRRs and their specificity remain(More)
In many tissues and organs, connexin proteins assemble between neighboring cells to form gap junctions. These gap junctions facilitate direct intercellular communication between adjoining cells, allowing for the transmission of both chemical and electrical signals. In rodents, gap junctions are found in differentiating myoblasts and are important for(More)
Following their synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) are transported to the membranes of excitable cells, where they often cluster, such as at the axon initial segment of neurons. Although the mechanisms by which NaV channels form and maintain clusters have been extensively examined, the processes that govern(More)
RNA helicases regulate RNA metabolism, but their substrate specificity and in vivo function remain largely unknown. We isolated spontaneous mutant zebrafish that exhibit an abnormal dorsal bend at the beginning of tactile-evoked escape swimming. Similar behavioral defects were observed in zebrafish embryos treated with strychnine, which blocks glycine(More)
We focus on Internet rumors and present an empirical analysis and simulation results of their diffusion and convergence during emergencies. In particular, we study one rumor that appeared in the immediate aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, which later turned out to be misinformation. By investigating whole Japanese tweets that(More)
Timing closure in LSI design becomes more and more difficult. But the conventional interconnect RC extraction method have over-margins caused by its corner conditions settings. In this paper, statistical corner conditions using the independence of variations between process parameters and between interconnect layers are proposed. As a result, the(More)