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Cell signaling mediated by the Notch receptor (N) regulates many cell-fate decisions and is partly controlled by the endocytic trafficking of N. Drosophila deltex (dx) encodes an evolutionarily conserved regulator of N signaling, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, which ubiquitinates N's intracellular domain. Although Dx was shown to function in N endocytosis in(More)
DSL ligands promote proteolysis of the Notch receptor, to release active Notch intracellular domain (N(ICD)). Conversely, the E3 ubiquitin ligase Deltex can activate ligand-independent Notch proteolysis and signaling. Here we show that Deltex effects require endocytic trafficking by HOPS and AP-3 complexes. Our data suggest that Deltex shunts Notch into an(More)
CERK1 is a lysine motif-containing plant pattern recognition receptor for chitin and peptidoglycan. Chitin recognition by OsCERK1 triggers rapid engagement of a rice MAP kinase cascade, which leads to defense response activation. How the MAP kinase cascades are engaged downstream of OsCERK1 remains obscure. Searching for host proteins that interact with(More)
Recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) initiates pattern-triggered immunity in host plants. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) are the major components required for sensing and transduction of these molecular patterns. However, the regulation of RLCKs by PRRs and their specificity remain(More)
To uncover an underlying mechanism of collective human dynamics, we survey more than 1.8 billion blog entries and observe the statistical properties of word appearances. We focus on words that show dynamic growth and decay with a tendency to diverge on a certain day. After careful pretreatment and the use of a fitting method, we found power laws generally(More)
Perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns by host cell surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) triggers the intracellular activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. However, it is not known how PRRs transmit immune signals to MAPK cascades in plants. Here, we identify a complete phospho-signaling transduction pathway from(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine and norepinephrine. A polymorphic repeat of the tetranucleotide (TCAT) in the first intron of the TH gene may behave as a regulatory element for the gene expression. Allelic fragments of the tandem repeat were typed by a PCR-based process with a pair of primers specific for(More)
Several lines of evidence implicate the cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR) and the A2a adenosine receptor (A2aAR) in the etiology of panic disorder. To determine the roles each of these receptors may play in panic disorder, we have performed a mutation screen on the CCKBR gene using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing. We(More)
Following their synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) are transported to the membranes of excitable cells, where they often cluster, such as at the axon initial segment of neurons. Although the mechanisms by which NaV channels form and maintain clusters have been extensively examined, the processes that govern(More)
In many tissues and organs, connexin proteins assemble between neighboring cells to form gap junctions. These gap junctions facilitate direct intercellular communication between adjoining cells, allowing for the transmission of both chemical and electrical signals. In rodents, gap junctions are found in differentiating myoblasts and are important for(More)