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Chronic-phase HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication is reduced by as much as 10,000-fold in elite controllers (ECs) compared with typical progressors (TPs), but sufficient viral replication persists in EC tissues to allow viral sequence evolution and induce excess immune activation. Here we show that productive SIV infection in rhesus(More)
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a major objective where antenatal care is not readily accessible. We tested HIV-1-specific human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NmAbs) as a post-exposure therapy in an infant macaque model for intrapartum MTCT. One-month-old rhesus macaques were inoculated orally with the simian-human(More)
Primate lentiviruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) evolved through the acquisition of antagonists against intrinsic host restriction factors, such as tetherin. It is widely accepted that HIV-1 has emerged by zoonotic transmission of SIV in chimpanzee (SIVcpz), and that SIVcpz Nef protein(More)
It has been estimated that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originated from the zoonotic transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) of chimpanzees, SIVcpz, and that SIVcpz emerged by the recombination of two lineages of SIVs in Old World monkeys (SIVgsn/mon/mus in guenons and SIVrcm in red-capped mangabeys) and SIVcpz Nef is most closely related(More)
Although X4 tropic SHIVs have been studied extensively, they show distinct infection phenotypes from those of R5 tropic viruses, which play an important role in HIV-1 transmission and pathogenesis. To augment the variety of R5 tropic SHIVs, we generated a new R5 tropic SHIV from the highly pathogenic X4 tropic SHIV-KS661, a derivative of SHIV-89.6. Based on(More)
The viral accessory protein Vpx, expressed by certain simian and human immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs and HIVs), is thought to improve viral infectivity of myeloid cells. We infected 35 Asian macaques and African green monkeys with viruses that do or do not express Vpx and examined viral targeting of cells in vivo. While lack of Vpx expression affected(More)
The antagonistic interaction with host restriction proteins is a major driver of evolutionary change for viruses. We previously reported that polymorphisms of the TRIM5α B30.2/SPRY domain impacted the level of SIVsmm viremia in rhesus macaques. Viremia in macaques homozygous for the non-restrictive TRIM5α allele TRIM5(Q) was significantly higher than in(More)
UNLABELLED Tripartite motif-containing protein 5α (TRIM5α) is considered to be a potential target for cell-based gene modification therapy against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In the present study, we used a relevant rhesus macaque model of infection with simian immunodeficiency virus from sooty mangabey (SIVsm) to evaluate the(More)
Nonhuman primate-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) models are powerful tools for studying the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the brain. Our laboratory recently isolated a neuropathogenic viral swarm, SIVsmH804E, a derivative of SIVsmE543-3, which was the result of sequential intravenous passages of viruses isolated from the(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1, simian immunodeficiency virus and simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection generally lead to death of the host accompanied by high viraemia and profound CD4(+) T-cell depletion. SHIV clone KS661-infected rhesus macaques with a high viral load set point (HVL) ultimately experience diarrhoea and wasting at 6-12(More)