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Regulation of the number of cells is critical for development of multicellular organisms. During plant epidermal development, a protodermal cell first makes a fate decision of whether or not to be the meristemoid mother cell (MMC), which undergoes asymmetric cell division forming a meristemoid and its sister cell. The MMC-derived lineage produces all(More)
Stomata are innovations of land plants that allow regulated gas exchange. Stomatal precursor cells are produced by asymmetric cell division, and once formed, signal their neighbors to inhibit the formation of stomatal precursors in direct contact. We report a gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR 1 (EPF1) that encodes a small secretory(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls cell growth in response to amino acids and growth factors, in part by regulating p70 S6 kinase alpha (p70 alpha) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1). Raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR) is a 150 kDa mTOR binding protein that is essential for TOR signaling in vivo and also(More)
BACKGROUND The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates multiple cellular functions including translation in response to nutrients, especially amino acids. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulates metabolism in response to energy demand by responding to changes in AMP. RESULTS The treatment of SV40-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls multiple cellular functions in response to amino acids and growth factors, in part by regulating the phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase (p70S6k) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). Raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR) is a recently identified mTOR binding partner that also(More)
In neurons, perisynaptic or dendritic translation is implicated in synapse-wide alterations of function and morphology triggered by neural activity. The molecular mechanisms controlling local translation activation, however, have yet to be elucidated. Here, we show that local protein synthesis and translational activation in neuronal dendrites are(More)
TOR is a serine-threonine kinase that was originally identified as a target of rapamycin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then found to be highly conserved among eukaryotes. In Drosophila melanogaster, inactivation of TOR or its substrate, S6 kinase, results in reduced cell size and embryonic lethality, indicating a critical role for the TOR pathway in cell(More)
The proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kilodaltons (PRAS40) was identified as a raptor-binding protein that is phosphorylated directly by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) but not mTORC2 in vitro, predominantly at PRAS40 (Ser(183)). The binding of S6K1 and 4E-BP1 to raptor requires a TOR signaling (TOS) motif, which contains an essential(More)
The mTOR protein kinase is known to control cell cycle progression and cell growth through regulation of translation, transcription, membrane traffic and protein degradation. Known interactions of mTOR do not account for the multiple functions of this protein. Using a non-catalytic segment of mTOR (1-670) as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen for interacting(More)
Car navigation equipment in practical use has treated a route planning problem as a single-objective problem. In this paper, we formulate the problem as a dynamic multi-objective problem and show how it can be solved using a GA. There are three objective functions to optimize simultaneously in this problem: route length, travel time that changes rapidly(More)