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The spaceflight environment is relevant to conditions encountered by pathogens during the course of infection and induces novel changes in microbial pathogenesis not observed using conventional methods. It is unclear how microbial cells sense spaceflight-associated changes to their growth environment and orchestrate corresponding changes in molecular and(More)
FELINES (Finding and Examining Lots of Intron 'N' Exon Sequences) is a utility written to automate construction and analysis of high quality intron and exon sequence databases produced from EST (expressed sequence tag) to genomic sequence alignments. We demonstrated the various programs of the FELINES utility by creating intron and exon sequence databases(More)
The lack of readily available experimental systems has limited knowledge pertaining to the development of Salmonella-induced gastroenteritis and diarrheal disease in humans. We used a novel low-shear stress cell culture system developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in conjunction with cultivation of three-dimensional (3-D) aggregates(More)
The B cell-specific B29 (Igbeta) gene is activated in the earliest B cell precursors and is expressed throughout B cell development. Tissue-specific expression of the murine B29 gene is controlled by a B cell-specific promoter whose activity is governed by a cassette of upstream transcriptional silencers. This study describes a potent new silencer that is(More)
Cryptococcosis, an increasingly important opportunistic infection caused by the encapsulated yeast-like organism Cryptococcus neoformans, is limited by an anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune (CMI) response. Gaining a thorough understanding of the complex anticryptococcal CMI response is essential for developing means of controlling infections with C.(More)
ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric region instability and facial anomalies) is a recessive disease caused by mutations in the DNA methyltransferase 3B gene (DNMT3B). Patients have immunodeficiency, chromosome 1 (Chr1) and Chr16 pericentromeric anomalies in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes, a small decrease in overall genomic 5-methylcytosine levels and much(More)
Protein O mannosylation is initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum by protein O-mannosyltransferases (Pmt proteins) and plays an important role in the secretion, localization, and function of many proteins, as well as in cell wall integrity and morphogenesis in fungi. Three Pmt proteins, each belonging to one of the three respective Pmt subfamilies, are(More)
Early inflammatory responses, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and cytokine profiles were studied in mice infected by the pulmonary route with either a highly virulent isolate (NU-2) or a weakly virulent isolate (184A) of Cryptococcus neoformans. After infection, NU-2 remained in the lungs and the capsule became more pronounced during the(More)
This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grown in spaceflight conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that C. albicans subjected to short-term spaceflight culture differentially regulated 452 genes compared to synchronous ground(More)
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