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Sexually antagonistic selection generates intralocus sexual conflict, an evolutionary tug-of-war between males and females over optimal trait values [1-4]. Although the potential for this conflict is universal, the evolutionary importance of intralocus conflict is controversial because conflicts are typically thought to be resolvable through the evolution(More)
Weapons used in male fighting can be costly to males and are often reported to trade off with other characters such as wings or spermatogenic investment. This study investigated whether increased investment into weapons can generate evolutionary changes in mating strategy for armed males. Male flour beetles, Gnatocerus cornutus, have enlarged mandibles that(More)
Female mate choice and male-male competition are the typical mechanisms of sexual selection. However, these two mechanisms do not always favour the same males. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that female choice can sometimes benefit males that reduce female fitness. So whether male-male competition and female choice favour the same or different(More)
The capability to utilize different forms of nitrogen (N) by sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) was determined in pot experiments. Seedlings were grown for 21 d without N, or with 500 mg N kg(-1) soil applied as ammonium nitrate, rice bran or a mixture of rice bran and straw. No(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS As with other crop species, Al tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) is widely different among cultivars, and the mechanism for tolerance is unknown. The Ca2+-displacement hypothesis, that is, Al displaces Ca2+ from critical sites in the root apoplast, was predicted to be the essential mechanism for causing Al toxicity in rice cultivars. If(More)
Inbreeding frequently leads to inbreeding depression, a reduction in the trait values of inbred individuals. Inbreeding depression has been documented in sexually selected characters in several taxa, and while there is correlational evidence that male fertility is especially susceptible to inbreeding depression, there have been few direct experimental(More)
Exaggerated traits can be costly and are often trade-off against other characters, such as life-history traits. Thus, the evolution of an exaggerated trait is predicted to affect male life-history strategies. However, there has been very little experimental evidence of the impact of the evolution of sexually selected traits on life-history traits. This(More)
permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Males can gather information on the risk and intensity of sperm competition from their social environment. Recent studies have implicated chemosensory cues, for instance cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in insects, as a key source of this(More)
Modulation of behaviours as a result of fighting experience has been observed in many animals and can influence pre-copulatory sexual selection. This study investigated how fighting experience affects ejaculatory strategies. In male flour beetles, Gnatocerus cornutus, experience of losing a fight decreases a male's aggressiveness for up to 4 days. We found(More)
Males and females frequently have different fitness optima for shared traits, and as a result, genotypes that are high fitness as males are low fitness as females, and vice versa. When this occurs, biasing of offspring sex-ratio to reduce the production of the lower-fitness sex would be advantageous, so that for example, broods produced by high-fitness(More)