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Photosynthesis in marine diatoms is a vital fraction of global primary production empowered by CO(2)-concentrating mechanisms. Acquisition of HCO(3)(-) from seawater is a critical primary step of the CO(2)-concentrating mechanism, allowing marine photoautotrophic eukaryotes to overcome CO(2) limitation in alkaline high-salinity water. However, little is(More)
Marine diatoms are known to be responsible for about a quarter of global primary production and their photosynthesis is sustained by inorganic carbon-concentrating mechanisms and/or C(4) metabolism. Activities of the inorganic carbon-concentrating mechanism are attenuated under enriched [CO(2)]; however, impacts of this factor on primary productivity and(More)
Marine diatoms, the major primary producer in ocean environment, are known to take up both CO2 and HCO3 − in seawater and efficiently concentrate them intracellularly, which enable diatom cells to perform high-affinity photosynthesis under limiting CO2. However, mechanisms so far proposed for the inorganic carbon acquisition in marine diatoms are(More)
One of the critical parts of the CO(2) perception mechanisms in algae has now been identified in a marine diatom, an important finding since diatoms are the major primary producer in the ocean. Increasing CO(2) might probably be sensed directly by the cAMP forming enzyme, adenylyl cyclase, and cytosolic cAMP represses expression of CCM components in marine(More)
Expression controls of the carbon acquisition system in marine diatoms in response to environmental factors are an essential issue to understand the changes in marine primary productivity. A pyrenoidal β-carbonic anhydrase, PtCA1, is one of the most important candidates to investigate the control mechanisms of the CO(2) acquisition system in the marine(More)
Photosynthesis produces chemical energy from photon energy in the photosynthetic electron transport and assimilates CO2 using the chemical energy. Thus, CO2 limitation causes an accumulation of excess energy, resulting in reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause oxidative damage to cells. O2 can be used as an alternative energy sink when oxygenic(More)
The insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway of Caenorhabditis elegans regulates larval diapause and adult lifespan through the sole insulin receptor-like protein, DAF-2. In the present study, the physiological function and expression pattern of INS-17, one of the C. elegans insulin-like peptides, were examined by disruption and overexpression(More)
The algal pyrenoid is a large plastid body, where the majority of the CO2-fixing enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) resides, and it is proposed to be the hub of the algal CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) and CO2 fixation. The thylakoid membrane is often in close proximity to or penetrates the pyrenoid itself, implying there(More)
Uridine-5'-monophosphate synthase (UMPS), the critical step of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway, which is a housekeeping plastid process in higher plants, was investigated in a marine diatom, the most crucial primary producer in the marine environment. A mutagenesis using an alkylation agent, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, was carried out to the marine(More)