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In the basal ganglia, convergent input and dopaminergic modulation of the direct striatonigral and the indirect striatopallidal pathways are critical in rewarding and aversive learning and drug addiction. To explore how the basal ganglia information is processed and integrated through these two pathways, we developed a reversible neurotransmission blocking(More)
Sympathetic innervation is critical for effective cardiac function. However, the developmental and regulatory mechanisms determining the density and patterning of cardiac sympathetic innervation remain unclear, as does the role of this innervation in arrhythmogenesis. Here we show that a neural chemorepellent, Sema3a, establishes cardiac sympathetic(More)
Inhalation of hydrogen (H(2)) gas has been demonstrated to limit the infarct volume of brain and liver by reducing ischemia-reperfusion injury in rodents. When translated into clinical practice, this therapy must be most frequently applied in the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction, since angioplastic recanalization of infarct-related(More)
The avascularity of cardiac valves is abrogated in several valvular heart diseases (VHDs). This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying valvular avascularity and its correlation with VHD. Chondromodulin-I, an antiangiogenic factor isolated from cartilage, is abundantly expressed in cardiac valves. Gene targeting of chondromodulin-I resulted(More)
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is associated with mutations in genes encoding intercalated disc proteins and ultimately results in sudden cardiac death. A subset of patients with AC have the autosomal recessive cardiocutaneous disorder Naxos disease, which is caused by a 2-base pair deletion in the plakoglobin-encoding gene JUP that results in a(More)
The cardiac sympathetic nerve plays an important role in regulating cardiac function, and nerve growth factor (NGF) contributes to its development and maintenance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate NGF expression and sympathetic innervation of the heart. In an effort to identify regulators of NGF in cardiomyocytes, we(More)
Fibroin light chain (L-chain) mRNA (mol. wt 4.0×105 daltons) was purified from the posterior silk gland of the silkworm,Bombyx mori (J-131 strain). Double-stranded complementary DNA was synthesized and inserted into the PstI site of pBR322 employing the oligo(dC)-oligo(dG) tailing method. Several recombinant plasmids containing the inserts of about 800 base(More)
Although several cytokines and neurotrophic factors induce sympathetic neurons to transdifferentiate into cholinergic neurons in vitro, the physiological and pathophysiological roles of this remain unknown. During congestive heart failure (CHF), sympathetic neural tone is upregulated, but there is a paradoxical reduction in norepinephrine synthesis and(More)
BACKGROUND Left ventricular (LV) remodeling leads to chronic heart failure and is a main determinant of morbidity and mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). At the present time, therapeutic options to prevent LV remodeling are limited. METHODS AND RESULTS We created a large MI by permanent ligation of the coronary artery and identified a potential(More)
The heart is electrically and mechanically controlled as a syncytium by the autonomic nervous system. The cardiac nervous system comprises the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and sensory nervous systems that together regulate heart function on demand. Sympathetic electric activation was initially considered the main regulator of cardiac function; however,(More)