Kenshiro Oshima

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BACKGROUND Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a gram-negative marine bacterium, is a worldwide cause of food-borne gastroenteritis. V parahaemolyticus strains of a few specific serotypes, probably derived from a common clonal ancestor, have lately caused a pandemic of gastroenteritis. The organism is phylogenetically close to V cholerae, the causative agent of(More)
Numerous microbes inhabit the human intestine, many of which are uncharacterized or uncultivable. They form a complex microbial community that deeply affects human physiology. To identify the genomic features common to all human gut microbiomes as well as those variable among them, we performed a large-scale comparative metagenomic analysis of fecal samples(More)
Among the various pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is the most devastating. Although serotype O157:H7 strains are the most prevalent, strains of different serotypes also possess similar pathogenic potential. Here, we present the results of a genomic comparison between EHECs of serotype O157, O26, O111, and O103, as well(More)
Manipulation of the gut microbiota holds great promise for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic diseases. Although numerous probiotic microorganisms have been identified, there remains a compelling need to discover organisms that elicit more robust therapeutic responses, are compatible with the host, and can affect a specific arm of the host immune(More)
Sodalis glossinidius is a maternally transmitted endosymbiont of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.), an insect of medical and veterinary significance. Analysis of the complete sequence of Sodalis' chromosome (4,171,146 bp, encoding 2,432 protein coding sequences) indicates a reduced coding capacity of 51%. Furthermore, the chromosome contains 972 pseudogenes, an(More)
The human gut is colonized with a wide variety of microorganisms, including species, such as those belonging to the bacterial genus Bifidobacterium, that have beneficial effects on human physiology and pathology. Among the most distinctive benefits of bifidobacteria are modulation of host defence responses and protection against infectious diseases.(More)
Many insects that rely on a single food source throughout their developmental cycle harbor beneficial microbes that provide nutrients absent from their restricted diet. Tsetse flies, the vectors of African trypanosomes, feed exclusively on blood and rely on one such intracellular microbe for nutritional provisioning and fecundity. As a result of(More)
Obesity has become more prevalent in most developed countries over the past few decades, and is increasingly recognized as a major risk factor for several common types of cancer. As the worldwide obesity epidemic has shown no signs of abating, better understanding of the mechanisms underlying obesity-associated cancer is urgently needed. Although several(More)
Lactobacillus reuteri is a heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium that naturally inhabits the gut of humans and other animals. The probiotic effects of L. reuteri have been proposed to be largely associated with the production of the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound reuterin during anaerobic metabolism of glycerol. We determined the complete genome(More)
The complete genomic sequence of an intracellular bacterial pathogen, Mycoplasma penetrans HF-2 strain, was determined. The HF-2 genome consists of a 1 358 633 bp single circular chromosome containing 1038 predicted coding sequences (CDSs), one set of rRNA genes and 30 tRNA genes. Among the 1038 CDSs, 264 predicted proteins are common to the(More)