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Patients with long-standing diabetes commonly develop diabetic encephalopathy, which is characterized by cognitive impairment and dementia. Oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell apoptosis is a contributing factor. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 has recently become an attractive treatment modality for patients with diabetes. It also readily enters the brain,(More)
1. Using the conventional whole-cell clamp method, the electrical responses of individual smooth muscle and endothelial cells to acetylcholine (ACh) were observed in multicellular preparations where the two types of cells remained in close apposition. 2. In both types of cells, ACh induced similar hyperpolarizing responses which, when recorded in current(More)
The electrophysiological properties of smooth muscle in the murine lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) were investigated by intracellular microelectrode recording. Inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) evoked by trains of field stimulation (30 V, 0.2-0.3 ms, 10 stimuli at 1-50 Hz) were observed in the murine LOS in the presence of atropine (1 microM) and(More)
AIM Patients with long-standing diabetes commonly develop diabetic encephalopathy, which is characterized by cognitive impairment and dementia. To identify potential treatments for diabetic encephalopathy, we focused on the protective action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) against neural cell apoptosis. In this study, we evaluated whether exposure of(More)
Alteration of mechanical responses elicited by transmural nerve stimulation (TNS) was investigated in pylorus muscle of stomach isolated from mutant mice lacking expression of IP, type-1 receptor. In wild and mutant mice. TNS inhibited spontaneous contractions and generated an off-response at the cessation. The effects of inhibitors of neurotransmission(More)
Circular smooth muscle preparations isolated from the rat proximal colon periodically generated two different amplitudes and frequencies of phasic contractions: large phasic contractions (LPC) with a frequency of about 1.5 times/min and small phasic contractions (SPC) with a frequency of about 9 times/min. Preparations with no attached longitudinal smooth(More)
Electrophysiological experiments were carried out to investigate the prokinetic actions of DQ-2511 on isolated smooth muscle of the guinea pig stomach. DQ-2511 enhanced the myogenic gastric slow waves and cholinergic excitatory junction potential and reduced the frequency of slow waves and the nonadrenergic, noncholinergic, and nonnitrergic inhibitory(More)
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