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Patients with long-standing diabetes commonly develop diabetic encephalopathy, which is characterized by cognitive impairment and dementia. Oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell apoptosis is a contributing factor. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 has recently become an attractive treatment modality for patients with diabetes. It also readily enters the brain,(More)
1. Using the conventional whole-cell clamp method, the electrical responses of individual smooth muscle and endothelial cells to acetylcholine (ACh) were observed in multicellular preparations where the two types of cells remained in close apposition. 2. In both types of cells, ACh induced similar hyperpolarizing responses which, when recorded in current(More)
Neutrophil-endothelial adhesion is a crucial step in vascular inflammation, which is recognized as the direct cause of atherosclerosis-mediated serious diseases. We demonstrated previously that high glucose increased adhesion in a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner within 48 h through increasing surface expression of endothelial adhesion molecules. On(More)
Neutrophil-endothelial adhesion is a crucial step in vascular inflammation and is recognized as a direct cause of serious atherosclerosis-mediated diseases. We previously demonstrated that high concentrations of glucose increased adhesion in a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner within 48 h of administration by increasing the surface expression of(More)
BACKGROUND We previously reported that culture of endothelial cells in the presence of high glucose concentrations (27.8 and 55.5 mM) increase neutrophils adhesion because of the increase in endothelial adhesion molecules expression via activation of a protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. The antidiabetic sulfonylurea gliclazide, but not glibenclamide, inhibited(More)
BACKGROUND We have previously reported that endothelial cells cultured in the presence of high concentrations of glucose (27.8 and 55.5 mM) exhibited enhanced neutrophil adhesion through increased expression of endothelial adhesion molecules via the activation of a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. We also found that the aldose reductase inhibitor,(More)
1. The effects of inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced hyperpolarization on dilatation of submucosal arterioles were investigated in the guinea-pig ileum. 2. In smooth muscles of the arterioles depolarized by Ba(2+) (0.5 mM) to about -40 mV, ACh (3 microM) repolarized the membrane to about -65 mV (hyperpolarization), irrespective of the absence or(More)
OBJECTIVE Endothelial-neutrophil adhesion is crucial for vascular injury, the major cause of diabetic vascular complications. On the other hand, platelet aggregation inhibitors, frequently used for diabetic patients with intermittent claudication, have been shown to decrease the incidence of atherosclerosis-mediated diseases (acute myocardial infarction and(More)
The electrophysiological properties of smooth muscle in the murine lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) were investigated by intracellular microelectrode recording. Inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) evoked by trains of field stimulation (30 V, 0.2-0.3 ms, 10 stimuli at 1-50 Hz) were observed in the murine LOS in the presence of atropine (1 microM) and(More)