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A linear wirelength objective more eeectively captures timing , congestion, and other global placement considerations than a squared wirelength objective. The GORDIAN-L cell placement tool 16] minimizes linear wirelength by rst approximating the linear wirelength objective by a modiied squared wirelength objective, then executing the following loop { (1)(More)
Retinal amacrine cells are a diverse set of interneurons within the inner nuclear layer. The canonical Wnt pathway is highly active within mature amacrine cells, but its role remains unclear. Leucine-rich repeat containing G-protein receptor 5 (Lgr5) is a newly identified component of the Wnt receptor complex that potentiates beta-catenin signaling. In(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Recent advances in the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in glioblastoma will be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS In the decade since the description of brain tumor CSCs, the potential significance of these cells in tumor growth, therapeutic resistance, and spread has become evident. Most recently, the interplay between CSCs, tumor genetics, and(More)
The "quadratic placement" methodology is rooted in [Module Placement Based on Resistive Network Optimization, Proud: A Sea-Of-Gate Placement Algorithm, A Combined Force and Cut Algorithm for Hierarchical VLSI Layout]and is reputedly used in many commercial and in-house tools forplacement of standard-cell and gate-array designs. The methodologyiterates(More)
Malignant gliomas are aggressive brain tumors with limited therapeutic options, and improvements in treatment require a deeper molecular understanding of this disease. As in other cancers, recent studies have identified highly tumorigenic subpopulations within malignant gliomas, known generally as cancer stem cells. Here, we demonstrate that glioma stem(More)
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