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A linear wirelength objective more eeectively captures timing , congestion, and other global placement considerations than a squared wirelength objective. The GORDIAN-L cell placement tool 16] minimizes linear wirelength by rst approximating the linear wirelength objective by a modiied squared wirelength objective, then executing the following loop { (1)(More)
The "quadratic placement" methodology is rooted in [Module Placement Based on Resistive Network Optimization, Proud: A Sea-Of-Gate Placement Algorithm, A Combined Force and Cut Algorithm for Hierarchical VLSI Layout]and is reputedly used in many commercial and in-house tools forplacement of standard-cell and gate-array designs. The methodologyiterates(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Recent advances in the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in glioblastoma will be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS In the decade since the description of brain tumor CSCs, the potential significance of these cells in tumor growth, therapeutic resistance, and spread has become evident. Most recently, the interplay between CSCs, tumor genetics, and(More)
Glioblastomas are the most prevalent and lethal primary brain tumor and are comprised of hierarchies with self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs) at the apex. Like neural stem cells (NSCs), CSCs reside in functional niches that provide essential cues to maintain the cellular hierarchy. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) instruct NSCs to adopt an astrocyte(More)
Malignant gliomas are aggressive brain tumors with limited therapeutic options, and improvements in treatment require a deeper molecular understanding of this disease. As in other cancers, recent studies have identified highly tumorigenic subpopulations within malignant gliomas, known generally as cancer stem cells. Here, we demonstrate that glioma stem(More)
BACKGROUND Obese subjects with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have more rapidly progressive liver disease. Objective In this study, we aimed to compare the hepatic cytokine and chemokine profiles in obese and lean subjects with chronic HCV infection using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. METHODS Liver biopsies from 55 subjects were studied,(More)
Embedded memory blocks (EMBs) are used in modern field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for implementation of on-chip memories or specialized logic functions[1]. In this paper, we propose an integrated approach with structural clustering and functional decomposition to minimize the circuit area using EMBs while preserving the circuit delay. The structural(More)
Retinal amacrine cells are a diverse set of interneurons within the inner nuclear layer. The canonical Wnt pathway is highly active within mature amacrine cells, but its role remains unclear. Leucine-rich repeat containing G-protein receptor 5 (Lgr5) is a newly identified component of the Wnt receptor complex that potentiates beta-catenin signaling. In(More)
OBJECTIVE Nonthyroid metastases to the thyroid gland can cause morbidity, including dysphagia, dysphonia, and airway compromise. Because metastatic malignancies portend a poor prognosis, obtaining equipoise between treatment morbidity and local disease progression is paramount. We reviewed cases of nonthyroid metastases to determine treatment and prognostic(More)