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There is now substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, undergoes major alterations in antigenic composition as it cycles between its arthropod and mammalian hosts. In this report, we cultivated B. burgdorferi 297 within dialysis membrane chambers implanted into the peritoneal cavities of rats to induce antigenic changes(More)
Previous freeze-fracture electron microscopy (EM) studies have shown that the outer membrane (OM) of Treponema pallidum contains sparse transmembrane proteins. One strategy for molecular characterization of these rare OM proteins involves isolation of T. pallidum OMs. Here we describe a simple and extremely gentle method for OM isolation based upon(More)
We used novel immunofluorescence strategies to demonstrate that outer surface proteins (Osps) A, B and C of Borrelia burgdorferi have limited surface exposure, finding that contradicts the prevailing viewpoint that these antigens are exclusively surface exposed. Light labeling was observed when antibodies to OspA or OspB were added to motile organisms,(More)
The lack of methods for isolating Borrelia burgdorferi outer membranes (OMs) has hindered efforts to characterize borrelial surface-exposed proteins. Here we isolated OMs by immersion of motile spirochetes in hypertonic sucrose followed by isopycnic ultracentrifugation of the plasmolyzed cells. The unilamellar vesicles thus obtained were shown to be OMs by(More)
Freeze-fracture electron microscopy was used to investigate the membrane architectures of high-passage Borrelia burgdorferi B31 and low- and high-passage isolates of B. burgdorferi N40. In all three organisms, fractures occurred almost exclusively through the outer membrane (OM), and the large majority of intramembranous particles were distributed randomly(More)
The recent discovery that the Treponema pallidum genome encodes 12 orthologs of the Treponema denticola major sheath protein (Msp) prompted us to reexamine the cellular location and topology of the T. denticola polypeptide. Experiments initially were conducted to ascertain whether Msp forms an array on or within the T. denticola outer membrane. Transmission(More)
A critical issue regarding the molecular architectures of Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi, the agents of venereal syphilis and Lyme disease, respectively, concerns the membrane topologies of their major lipoprotein immunogens. A related question is whether these lipid-modified membrane proteins form intramembranous particles during freeze(More)
The outer membrane of Treponema pallidum, the non-cultivable agent of venereal syphilis, contains a paucity of protein(s) which has yet to be definitively identified. In contrast, the outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria contain abundant immunogenic membrane-spanning beta-barrel proteins mainly involved in nutrient transport. The absence of orthologs(More)
The postnatal development of the basilar pontine nuclei (BPN) was studied in the rat from birth through postnatal day 21. Although 3 maturational phases could be discerned within this time span, the events taking place within each phase overlap to some degree and the postnatal maturation of this region is best characterized as a continuum comprised of(More)
Freeze-fracture and deep-etch electron microscopy were used to investigate the molecular architecture of the Treponema pallidum outer membrane (OM). Freeze-fracture electron microscopy of treponemes freshly harvested from rabbit testes revealed that the intramembranous particles (IMPs) in both the concave and convex OM leaflets were distributed into(More)
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