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Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) controls the expression of genes that adapts the cellular condition to accommodate oxidative stress. The potential beneficial effect of HIF up-regulation in ischemia has recently gained interest substantiated by the known HIF-regulation of erythropoietin and other hypoxia accommodating genes. So far the perspectives for HIF(More)
Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a neurodegenerative disease currently with no treatment. We describe a novel mouse model of MJD which expresses mutant human ataxin-3 at near endogenous levels and manifests MJD-like motor symptoms that appear gradually and progress over time. CMVMJD135 mice show ataxin-3 intranuclear(More)
Systemic injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in mice is one of the primary models used to evaluate neuroprotective and symptomatic treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease. Many behavioral methods for evaluation of MPTP toxicity have been described, but they often involve challenging scenarios that require handling and(More)
The structural determinants for the selective binding of the nonpeptide opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) to the kappa-opioid receptor were characterized using a systematic series of chimeras between the kappa receptor and the homologous mu-opioid receptor. All 10 chimeric constructs bound the nonselective antagonists (-)-naloxone and(More)
The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is essential for the activation of several genes that promote the survival of cells exposed to oxidative stress. Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the dopamine (DA) synthesis, is one of the genes that are positively regulated by HIF. Accordingly, HIF(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors with their seven transmembrane (7TM) segments constitute the largest superfamily of proteins known. Unfortunately, still only relatively low resolution structures derived from electron cryo-microscopy analysis of 2D crystals are available for these proteins. We have used artificially designed Zn(II) metal-ion binding sites to(More)
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) exposure leads to significant and irreversible damage to dopaminergic neurons in both mice and humans. While MPTP exposure in humans causes permanent symptoms of Parkinson's disease, MPTP treated mice will recover behaviorally over a 3-week period. This mouse specific recovery might be linked to(More)
The hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a central transcription factor involved in the cellular and molecular adaptation to hypoxia and low glucose supply. The level of HIF-1 is to a large degree regulated by the HIF prolyl hydroxylase enzymes (HPHs) belonging to the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily. In the present study, we(More)
Ubiquitination and phosphorylation of proteins represent post translational modifications (PTMs) capable of regulating a variety of cellular processes. In the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), the disease causing protein ataxin-3 carries an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch causing it to aggregate in nuclear inclusions.(More)
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