Kenneth Steven Knox

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Acute HIV infection is characterized by massive loss of CD4 T cells from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Th17 cells are critical in the defense against microbes, particularly at mucosal surfaces. Here we analyzed Th17 cells in the blood, GI tract, and broncheoalveolar lavage of HIV-infected and uninfected humans, and SIV-infected and uninfected sooty(More)
The immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis has been difficult to charaterize given the heterogeneity of disease, the elusiveness of the causative antigen, and the lack of an adequate animal model. However, by examining well-defined clinical cohorts, the interplay between genetic predisposition and immunologic response has been increasingly informative.(More)
With increasing numbers of immune-compromised patients with malignancy, hematologic disease, and HIV, as well as those receiving immunosupressive drug regimens for the management of organ transplantation or autoimmune inflammatory conditions, the incidence of fungal infections has dramatically increased over recent years. Definitive diagnosis of pulmonary(More)
We have evaluated the Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay for detection of galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in solid organ transplant patients with aspergillosis. The precision and reproducibility in serum or BAL to which galactomannan was added were similar. Sensitivity was 81.8% in patients with aspergillosis, and specificity(More)
RATIONALE Lung infections caused by opportunistic or virulent pathogens are a principal cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV infection. It is unknown whether HIV infection leads to changes in basal lung microflora, which may contribute to chronic pulmonary complications that increasingly are being recognized in individuals infected with HIV. OBJECTIVES(More)
The mechanisms underlying the massive gastrointestinal tract CD4 T-cell depletion in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are not well understood nor is it clear whether similar depletion is manifest at other mucosal surfaces. Studies of T-cell and virus dynamics in different anatomical sites have begun to illuminate the pathogenesis of(More)
RATIONALE Little is known about the genetic regulation of granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis. OBJECTIVES To determine if tissue gene array analysis would identify novel genes engaged in inflammation and lung remodeling in patients with sarcoidosis. METHODS Gene expression analysis was performed on tissues obtained from patients with sarcoidosis(More)
BACKGROUND The endemic region of blastomycosis historically has included the state of Indiana. However, few published reports of blastomycosis exist to substantiate this distinction. A surge of patients with blastomycosis in central Indiana (Indianapolis and surrounding counties) beginning in 2005 prompted us to review our local experience. We propose that(More)
The massive depletion of gastrointestinal-tract CD4 T cells is a hallmark of the acute phase of HIV infection. In contrast, the depletion of the lower-respiratory-tract mucosal CD4 T cells as measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is more moderate and similar to the depletion of CD4 T cells observed in peripheral blood (PB). To understand better the(More)
Many patients with rheumatoid arthritis are being treated with immunosuppressive regimens that include an agent directed at blocking tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Although reportedly safe, tuberculous and fungal infections have emerged as significant complications of therapy. We report a case of pulmonary cryptococcosis soon after the initiation of(More)