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OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy and tolerability of unilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with medically refractory essential tremor (ET) and the tremor associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). BACKGROUND The tremor of ET and PD may produce functional disability despite optimal medical therapy. Several reports have(More)
Botulinum toxin antibodies (ABS) may be a reason why occasionally patients do not have a response to injections with botulinum toxin type A (BTX). We tested 86 patients with cervical or oromandibular dystonia for the presence of BTX ABS; 20 were positive and 66 were negative. All patients who tested positive had no response to BTX injections on at least two(More)
We studied 300 patients, 61% women, with mean age 49.7 years and mean duration of dystonia 7.8 years, to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of cervical dystonia (CD) and its relationships to other movement disorders. Torticollis was present in 82%, laterocollis in 42%, retrocollis in 29%, and anterocollis in 25%; however, the majority(More)
We studied 242 patients with cervical dystonia who had adequate follow-up after botulinum toxin injections to determine which clinical variables had a predictive value in the treatment outcome. Twenty-one patients (16%) categorized as nonresponders were compared with 113 patients (47%) considered to be definite responders. On average, the nonresponders had(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW This study reviews current concepts in the goals of glaucoma therapy, interventional sequence, and options for the management of glaucoma in light of recent clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS Recent randomized prospective trials of ocular hypertension and glaucoma have provided evidence for more specific treatment goals in glaucoma(More)
In the past five years, 477 patients with various focal dystonias and hemifacial spasm received 3,806 injections of botulinum A toxin for relief of involuntary spasms. A definite improvement with a global rating greater than or equal to 2 on a 0-4 scale, was obtained in all 13 patients with spasmodic dysphonia, 94% of 70 patients with blepharospasm, 92% of(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterise postural tremors in patients with Parkinson's disease. Rest tremor is a well recognised cardinal symptom of Parkinson's disease, but postural tremors associated with the disease may cause more disability than the more typical rest tremor. Postural tremor of Parkinson's disease has been attributed to enhanced physiological tremor,(More)
We performed a longitudinal analysis of the effects of repeat botulinum toxin (BTX) injections in 42 patients with blepharospasm (BL) and 115 patients with cervical dystonia (CD) who received BTX injections between 1984 and 1992 in at least five separate treatment sessions. Although the BL patients were significantly older (59.8 years) than the CD patients(More)
Essential tremor (ET) is a common movement disorder that often becomes refractory to conventional pharmacologic management. Open-label studies suggest that gabapentin is efficacious for ET, but the results of controlled trials have been mixed. To determine the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin in ET, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled,(More)