Kenneth S Schwartz

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Botulinum toxin antibodies (ABS) may be a reason why occasionally patients do not have a response to injections with botulinum toxin type A (BTX). We tested 86 patients with cervical or oromandibular dystonia for the presence of BTX ABS; 20 were positive and 66 were negative. All patients who tested positive had no response to BTX injections on at least two(More)
We studied 300 patients, 61% women, with mean age 49.7 years and mean duration of dystonia 7.8 years, to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of cervical dystonia (CD) and its relationships to other movement disorders. Torticollis was present in 82%, laterocollis in 42%, retrocollis in 29%, and anterocollis in 25%; however, the majority(More)
In the past five years, 477 patients with various focal dystonias and hemifacial spasm received 3,806 injections of botulinum A toxin for relief of involuntary spasms. A definite improvement with a global rating greater than or equal to 2 on a 0-4 scale, was obtained in all 13 patients with spasmodic dysphonia, 94% of 70 patients with blepharospasm, 92% of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy and tolerability of unilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with medically refractory essential tremor (ET) and the tremor associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). BACKGROUND The tremor of ET and PD may produce functional disability despite optimal medical therapy. Several reports have(More)
Twenty-five patients with hand tremor of 2+ (moderate) to 4+ (severe) on the tremor severity rating scale were randomized to receive either 50 U of botulinum toxin (BTX) type A (Allergan, Irvine, CA) or placebo injections into the wrist flexors and extensors of the dominant limb. If patients failed to respond to the initial injection, they were eligible to(More)
We followed 205 of 232 patients with medically intractable cervical dystonia for at least 3 months and up to 4 years, during which time they received 1,074 injections in 505 visits. One hundred forty-five of the 205 patients (71%) improved substantially (global rating greater than or equal to 2; from 0 = no response to 4 = marked improvement in severity and(More)
We report the results of an open trial of botulinum toxin (Botox) in the treatment of 51 patients with disabling tremors, classified as dystonic (14), essential (12), combination of dystonic and essential (22), parkinsonian (1), peripherally induced (1), and midbrain (1). The average age of the patients was 55.8 years, and duration of symptoms was 13.9(More)
To study the relation between essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD), we compared the frequency of familial tremor in relatives of patients with PD (N = 391), ET (N = 140), and the combination of ET and PD (N = 125) with the frequency in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) (N = 99) and normal age-matched controls (N = 104). Tremor(More)
We studied 242 patients with cervical dystonia who had adequate follow-up after botulinum toxin injections to determine which clinical variables had a predictive value in the treatment outcome. Twenty-one patients (16%) categorized as nonresponders were compared with 113 patients (47%) considered to be definite responders. On average, the nonresponders had(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The purpose of this review is to critically compare the various glaucoma drainage implants in popular use. RECENT FINDINGS Glaucoma drainage implants are being increasingly utilized in the surgical management of glaucoma. Comparisons between the various drainage implants are difficult because most clinical data are derived from(More)