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The uptake and subcellular partitioning of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were examined in a rat-liver cell line (Clone 9) using confocal and multiphoton microscopy. Following a 16-h treatment, intracellular accumulation of BaP increased with increasing concentration, and cytoplasmic BaP fluorescence reached saturation at 10 microM. Analysis of the kinetics of BaP(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that negatively control expression of target genes in animals and plants. The microRNA-21 gene (mir-21) has been identified as the only miRNA commonly overexpressed in solid tumors of the lung, breast, stomach, prostate, colon, brain, head and neck, esophagus and pancreas. We initiated a screen to(More)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a prototypical member of this class of chemicals, has been extensively studied for its toxic effects in laboratory animals and human populations. BaP toxicity is often mediated by oxidative metabolism to reactive intermediates that interact with(More)
Glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (GRP78) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperone functioning in protein folding, assembly and trafficking. GRP78 also plays a role in protection against cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by environmental insults. Our previous study showed that lead (Pb) directly targets GRP78 by binding to the protein and(More)
Lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) are widespread environmental contaminants that induce prominent neural toxicity. Although the brain is not the major Pb and Hg depot in the body, these metals preferentially accumulate in astroglia to exert toxic effects. In this study, we examined the effects of Pb acetate and HgCl(2) on the expression of GRP78, a molecular(More)
Ahr is a ligand-activated bHLH/PAS transcription factor involved in cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene regulation and murine susceptibility to atherogenic stimuli. The present studies were conducted to examine constitutive and inducible expression of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Ahr(+/+) and Ahr(-/-) mice. Cyp1a1 mRNA was not(More)
Cigarette smoking has been strongly associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), but the components of tobacco smoke involved in AAA have not been identified. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is an important constituent in cigarette smoke capable of induction of alterations strikingly similar to the pathological changes seen during AAA development. We therefore(More)
Long interspersed nuclear elements [LINE-1 (L1)] are abundant retrotransposons in mammalian genomes that remain silent under most conditions. Cellular stress signals activate L1, but the molecular mechanisms controlling L1 activation remain unclear. Evidence is presented here that benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental hydrocarbon metabolized by mammalian(More)
Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs or L1 elements) are targeted for epigenetic silencing during early embryonic development and remain inactive in most cells and tissues. Here we show that E2F-Rb family complexes participate in L1 elements epigenetic regulation via nucleosomal histone modifications and recruitment of histone deacetylases (HDACs)(More)
We have previously shown that serial passage of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) treated with a single low dose of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induces acquisition of highly proliferative (i.e. atherogenic) phenotypes. To define the molecular basis of this response, differential display polymerase chain reaction was used to identify early target genes in murine(More)